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TitleContextual and Personal Predictors of Coping with Anger in Junior Tennis Players
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.1 MB
Total Pages102
Table of Contents
                            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
	Statement of the Problem
	Purposes of the Study
	Significance of the Study
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
	Conceptual and Theoretical Issues on Anger in Sport
	Theories of Anger
		Anger and Performance
		Sociocultural Theory
		Humanistic Theory
		Behavioral Theory
		Social Learning Theory
		Cognitive-behavioral Theory on Anger
	The Transactional Process Model of Stress and Coping
		Cognitive Appraisal
		Individual Differences in Stress and Coping
	Measurement of Anger
	Measurement of Coping
	Stress and Coping in Sport
	Stress and Coping of Adolescents
	Stress and Coping of Adolescent Athletes
	The Role of Anger and Coping with Anger in Sport/Tennis
	Hypotheses
METHODS
	Participants
	Measures
		Adolescent Anger Rating Scale
		Causal Dimension Scale
		Coping Function Questionnaire
		Number of Anger Outbursts
	Procedure
	Data Analysis
RESULTS
	Descriptive Statistics
	Reliability of Measures
	Hypothesis 1: Bivariate Correlations
	Hypotheses 2 and 3: High vs. Low Trait Anger Athletes
	Hypothesis 3: Gender Differences
DISCUSSION
	Hypothesis 1: Bivariate Correlations
	Hypothesis 2: Coping Differences Between High versus Low Ang
	Hypothesis 3: Gender Differences
	Study Limitations and Future Research Directions
	Applied Implications
INSTITUTUIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL
SURVEY PACKET
LIST OF REFERENCES
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
                        
Document Text Contents
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and included the following: active coping, seeking social support for instrumental

reasons, planning, seeking social support for emotional reasons, denial, humor,

behavioral disengagement, venting of emotion, and suppression of competing activities.

The other three scales consisted of self-blame, wishful thinking and increasing effort.

Each of the 12 scales consisted of four items, each item being scored on a 5-point Likert

scale with 1 standing for used not at all/very little and 5 meaning used very much. Some

of the scales were rewritten to adjust them to a sport environment as well as to a 5th grade

reading level to make them understandable to all participants.

Crocker and Graham (1995) used performance goal incongruence as a measure of

stress, which was defined as whether an athlete was (a) able to perform as well as wanted,

or, (b) did not reach the performance goal, or (c) was unable to reach the performance

goal. Affect was assessed using the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

(PANAS: Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), which consists of two scales: positive affect

reflecting the level of pleasurable engagement with the environment and negative affect

representing general negative valence associated with subjective distress. Each scale was

made up of 10 items, scored on a 5-point scale with 1 being not at all and 5 meaning

extremely.

The results indicated that problem-focused coping and avoidance coping strategies

were employed most often by this sample. Moreover, younger athletes seemed to use

more avoidance coping while older athletes appeared to employ more problem-focused

coping. Furthermore athletes reported the use of self-blame and social support. Moreover

the findings indicated that male and female athletes appraised and coped differently with

performance related stress. Females sought more emotional support and showed higher

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levels of increased effort. Furthermore, it was implied by the data that positive affect was

positively related to problem-focused coping. On the other hand negative affect was

positively related to emotion-based coping.

However, certain limitations apply to this data: As mentioned by the authors

"emotion is a reaction to meaning, and if the meaning is changed there will also be a

change in the subsequent emotion". The ever-changing nature of stress and emotion

makes it difficult to determine the effects of coping on emotion in certain situations,

especially with using a retrospective measure, which requires athletes to recall

experiences and strategies.

Anshel and Delany (1998) conducted a study to identify the sources of acute stress

of male and female child athletes. They also attempted to assess the athletes' cognitive

appraisals and coping strategies used during competitive sport events. A total of 52 field

hockey players, 36 males and 16 females aged 10-12, participated in the study. A

structured personal interview technique was used for researching child stress and coping

to facilitate recall of events. Furthermore, each structured interview consisted of

determining the athlete's sources of acute stress that they encountered during the game,

and the cognitive appraisal and coping strategies used in response to each stressor. The

majority of the interviews were conducted in person, while a few of them were done over

the phone.

Overall, the results suggested that receiving a bad call from the umpire and making

a physical game error were the two most often cited sources of stress for athletes.

Furthermore, the findings indicated that sources of stress were either appraised as

positive or negative, where both males and females appraised stress as negative.

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Tulloch, R. (1990). Cognitive perspectives on anger control training. In W. Dryden & M.
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