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Table of Contents
                            Conceptualising Women’s Working Lives: Moving the Boundaries of Discourse
	DEDICATION
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	PREFACE
	AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES
	PART 1: CHALLENGE AND CHANGE
		CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING WOMEN’S WORKING LIVES
			INTRODUCTION
				Women in the Workforce
				Summary
			CHANGING UNDERSTANDINGS AND DEFINITIONS OF CAREER
			THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN UNDERSTANDING WOMEN’S WORKING LIVES
				Early Theorists
				Major Post-War Theories
				Theories for Women and Men
				Individual Differences Models
				Extensions from Existing Theories
				Ecological or Systems Theories
				Relational Theories
			CONCLUDING COMMENTS AND QUESTIONS
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATION
		CHAPTER 2: EXPANDING THE DISCOURSE: A DUAL MODEL OF WORKING FOR WOMEN’S (AND MEN’S) LIVES
			THE POWER OF DISCOURSE
			A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRISIS OF CARE
				The Rise of Career and Work and Family Discourse
				The Revolution in Women’s Roles
				The Interdependence of Work and Family
				Social Policy on Work and Family
				The Commodification of Care Work
				Other Social Forces Contributing to a Crisis in Care
			THE EVOLUTION OF CARE DISCOURSE
				The Social Value of Care
				The Ethic of Care
				The Meaning of Unpaid Care Work
			THE COUNSELLING FOR WORK AND RELATIONSHIP PERSPECTIVE: A CONTEXT FOR A DUAL MODEL OF WORKING
				Four Major Developmental Contexts
				Implications of Contextualism
				Centrality of Narrative Theory
			CONCLUSION
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
		CHAPTER 3: A RELATIONAL CULTURAL PARADIGM AS A THEORETICAL BACKDROP FOR CONSIDERING WOMEN’S WORK
			RELATIONAL CULTURAL PARADIGM
			FEMINIST THEORY
			INTERSECTIONALITY
			FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON THE RELATIONAL CULTURAL PARADIGM FOR VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
			CONSIDERATIONS OF WOMEN’S WORK
			A WAY FORWARD THROUGH RELATIONAL CULTURAL PRACTICE
			SUMMARY
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATION
		CHAPTER 4: PATTERNS AND PARADOXES IN WOMEN’S CAREERS
			INTRODUCTION
			THE ORIGINAL PATTERNS AND PARADOXES
			LITERATURE FROM 2007–2011
			CONCLUSION
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
	PART 2: TRANSITIONS AND LIFE STAGES
		CHAPTER 5: WORKABLE SOLUTIONS: THE INTERSUBJECTIVE CAREERS OF WOMEN WITH FAMILIES
			METHODOLOGY
			MILITARY FAMILIES
				The Homemaker Career
				Home Time for Professional Investment
				Solving the Moral Problem of Child Care
				Work and Child Care as Essential
				The Deflated Career
				The Re-Directed Career
				Compromising Between Careers
				Not Compromising Between Careers
				The Circumstantial Career
			PROFESSIONAL FAMILIES
				The Female Breadwinner
				Dual Careers with a Spatial Solution
				Dual Careers with a Timing Solution
				Not So Grand Career Narratives
				Single Parents’ Workable Solutions using Space and Time Strategically
				Living Together Apart
			CONCLUSION
			ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
		CHAPTER 6: MIDLIFE CAREER TRANSITIONS FOR WOMEN
			DEFINITION OF MIDLIFE
			MIDLIFE ROLE TRANSITIONS: CRISIS OR PRIME OF LIFE?
			THE CAREER MYSTIQUE AND BEYOND
			HISTORICAL PATTERNS IN CAREER TRANSITIONS
			AGE AND GENDER PATTERNS IN CAREER TRANSITIONS
			FACTORS RELATED TO MIDLIFE WOMEN’S CAREER TRANSITIONS
			MIDLIFE CAREER CHANGES AS A TRANSITION TO RETIREMENT
			CONCLUSION
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATION
		CHAPTER 7: OLDER WOMEN’S CAREERS: SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVES
			INTRODUCTION
			CAREER THEORY: SYSTEMIC APPROACHES
				Systems Theory Framework of Career Development
			CAREER SERVICES FOR WOMEN: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
			CONCLUSION
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
	PART 3: SPECIFIC FIELDS
		CHAPTER 8: A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVE OF WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL WOMEN IN SRI LANKA
			WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT MODELS
				The Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM)
				O’Neil and Bilimoria’s Career Development Phases for Women
			SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM
			RESEARCH DESIGN
				The Sri Lankan Context
			FINDINGS
				Making Sense of Career Development
				Wider Contextual Structures in Sri Lanka
				Work Organisations
				Home
			DISCUSSION
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
		CHAPTER 9: AUSTRALIAN WOMEN IN THE ACADEMY: CHALLENGES AND ASPIRATIONS
			INTRODUCTION
			WOMEN IN THE ACADEMY
				The University Culture
			THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT
			GENDER AND SOCIETY
			THE STUDY
			RESULTS
				Career Challenges for Women Professors
				Career Aspirations of New Women Professors
			CONCLUSION
			ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
			NOTES
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
		CHAPTER 10: WOMEN’S ASPIRATIONS TOWARDS “STEM” CAREERS: A MOTIVATIONAL ANALYSIS
			INTRODUCTION
			ABILITY DIFFERENCES
			THEORETICAL ABILITY FRAMEWORKS
			SOCIALISATION EXPLANATIONS
				Broad Contextual Influences
				Proximal Influences
			THEORETICAL SOCIALISATION FRAMEWORKS
			MOTIVATIONAL EXPLANATIONS
				Values
				Self-perceptions
				“Cost” Deterrents
				Cultural Values
			THEORETICAL MOTIVATION FRAMEWORKS
				Expectancies
				Reasons for Engagement
			THEORY INTEGRATION
			CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
				Multipronged Efforts to Enhance Girls and Women’s Participation in STEM
				Prognosis
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATIONS
		CHAPTER 11: CHANGING THE DISCOURSE OF WOMEN’S WORK: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
			THEORISING WOMEN’S WORKING LIVES
			CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE: CHANGING THE DISCOURSE
				Theoretical Positions
				Language
				Relational and Cultural Diversity
			CONCLUDING COMMENTS
			REFERENCES
			AFFILIATION
	SUBJECT INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Conceptualising Women’s Working Lives

Page 2

CAREER DEVELOPMENT SERIES
Connecting Theory and Practice
Volume 5

Series Editor
Wendy Patton, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Editorial Board
Audrey Collin, DeMontfort University, Leicester, UK
Kobus Maree, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Peter McIlveen, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Vladimir Skorikov, University of Hawaii, USA
Raoul van Esbroeck, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, Belgium

Scope
Recent developments in the literature on career have begun to reflect a greater global
reach and acknowledgement of an international/global understanding of career.
These developments have demanded a more inclusive understanding of career as
it is experienced by individuals around the world. Related issues within the career
literature include the relationships within the career theory literature, or theory
integration and convergence, and between theory and practice. The influence of
constructivism is another influence which is receiving sustained attention within
the field.

The series will be cutting edge in focusing on each of these areas, and will be truly
global in its authorship and application. The primary focus of the series is the theory-
practice nexus.

Page 103

C. DOHERTY & C. J. LASSIG

94

The Circumstantial Career

The following quote offers a detailed narrative of one woman’s decisions to
reconfigure her work and family roles, in the conditions produced by her husband’s
lengthy absences. She doesn’t speak of income and work satisfaction, but rather of
the emotional climate of the home, domestic duties, time with her children, pleasure
derived from her time at home, and the happenstance of an offer of ‘family-friendly’
work at her children’s school:

I finished up [full time work] in July this year because I wanted to take some
time off to be with my children … I work at the school four mornings a week ...
Earlier in the year I sort of made the decision, you know, it is tough when
[husband’s] not home to share the burden of the kids and groceries and all
that sort of stuff and I said to [husband] whilst he was away this time “Eight
months has been a long, long time. It just feels that it’s too long” and coming
home from work in the evenings it’s like rush, rush, rush and then I wasn’t
spending the time with the kids that I wanted to do and I said to [husband]
“When you come back, I’m going to be cutting out my work. I’m either going
to go part time or I’m going to finish up for a while”. Initially I was going to go
back and do full time work but I enjoyed my time off. So I said to my husband
“I’m going to take six months off” so I’m not going to start looking for work
now until the New Year. It was only by fluke the school had advertised for a
teacher’s aide ... so I spoke to the boys and I said “How would you feel for me
to work there?” ... They were both very excited but I wouldn’t have gone to the
school to do the work had they not felt comfortable with me doing it because I
know that’s their time, that’s their friends and they’ll act a little bit differently
when myself and [husband] aren’t around and I don’t want to interfere on their
time either. (Mary)

Of particular interest here is firstly her assertive decision to reduce work commitments,
then its contrast with the condition she herself placed on the work offer of whether
her school-aged children were agreeable. There is a dense network of intersubjective
contingencies evident in this narrative of a career course, forcibly shaping her
decisions by their externally imposed conditions, with little if any reference to the
nature of the work, its internal qualities or satisfactions.

Another interviewee shared a suppressed, wistful sense of hope for other, more
individual, possibilities above and beyond her core commitment to the homemaker
role, but still within her intersubjective constraints:

you know always in the back of my mind…not that that’s been a huge issue for
me since the kids because my career has really taken a back step in that I’ve
chosen to be at home with the kids and stuff like that but always in the back of
my mind is, “What opportunities are going to come for me?” and “Are they
going to fit in with what’s happening with everybody else?” (Barbara)

Page 104

WORKABLE SOLUTIONS

95

As a group, these accounts by women in military families revealed different
premises, emotions, settlements and moral logics behind their solutions, be they
working solely in the home, reducing paid career goals, reconfiguring a more
compatible professional pathway, stoically pursuing one’s own profession, or relying
on the happenstance of what opportunities may arise. Women with families, as this
highly selected group demonstrated, are not a homogeneous population, and defy
glib generalisations. Their accounts may share common situational contingencies
such as child care availability, waiting lists, partner absences, and school drop offs,
however similar ‘workable solutions’ were often rationalised under different ‘whys’.
For example, homemaking was explained as a calling, a temporary phase, or an
economic calculation. On the other hand, similar ‘why’ concerns were addressed
through diverse ‘hows’, such as the different strategies families used to keep formal
childcare to a minimum.

The rate at which these families moved would test any household, but these
women showed determination, perseverance, flexibility, patience, resourcefulness
and humility in their willingness to explore their place in the structure of opportunities
offered in each location. The women described passions, anger, stress, satisfactions,
relish, assertiveness, compromises, sacrifices, dedication, ambition, frustrations,
hopes, regrets, and doubts as they weighed their projects against the needs and
goals of others in their families. It was often the couple as ‘we’ that made decisions
about the woman’s career plans in these accounts and decisions were predicated on
‘our’ values, the boss ‘needing someone’, the husband’s absences, or the children’s
schooling hours. This dense web of intersubjectivity imposed conditions and
constraints on the women’s career possibilities, but most were willing parties to these
constraints themselves given their emotional stake in the family – their wants and
needs could not be neatly partitioned from those of the family unit. It’s complicated.

PROFESSIONAL FAMILIES

The second set of 27 families included four doctors, five nurses (one single
parenting), 12 police officers, one financial administrator, and 12 teachers (two
single parenting), with a total of 81 children (from one to six children in the family,
with a mode of three). These families could entertain very different options in that
the professional skills of at least one of their parents are in constant demand across
Australia’s regional and remote communities. This group were in effect spoilt for
choice about where their household might live, while the military families had
little or no choice. For the latter, the military career (typically of the male partner)
demanded priority, reducing the female partner’s participation in paid employment
to vicarious and reactive opportunity. For the professional families, however, there
was the capacity to consider and optimise the opportunity structures for both partners
in location decisions. For teachers and police careers in particular, promotional
opportunities often entailed household relocations to where a job at the next desired
level was available. Did this result in different workable solutions?

Page 205

SUBJECT INDEX

Alternative epistemologies, 51, 195, 200
Aspatial work, 97
Assessment, 58, 59, 101, 121–122, 127,

160–161, 168, 170, 186
Care work, 30–32
Career adaptability, 17
Career decision making, 58, 130, 185
Career development, 3–17, 26–27,

40, 52, 57–58, 71, 75, 120–132,
137–151, 193, 195, 197–199

Career exploration, 58
Career guidance and counselling,

127–129, 131–132
Career patterns, 7, 9–10, 66, 70, 137
Career support, 67, 71, 130–132
Caregiving work, 52, 56
Caring labour, 56
Child care, 89–91, 95, 97, 100–101,

130, 199
Choice, 6, 10–14, 26, 34, 40, 52, 83,

84, 197
Competence, 59, 73, 183–184
Competing priorities, 85, 86
Counselling, 38–42, 57–59, 64, 69,

122, 123, 127–132
Culture, 41, 51–55, 59, 159–160,

169–170
Discourse, 23–42
Diversity, 8, 33, 54, 72, 100, 194,

198–200
Dual career paths, 96
Dual careers, 96, 97
Emotion work, 56–57
Emotional bargains, 100
Emotional investments, 85, 93
Empowerment, 67, 106, 112, 178
Ethnicity, 16, 55, 107
Expectancy-Value Model, 184

Family, 7, 28–29, 150–152
Female breadwinner, 96
Feminism, 53–54
Feminist perspectives, 51
Feminist standpoint theory, 53–55
Feminist theory, 63–54
Fly-in-fl y-out work, 99
Gender orders, 86
Historical and cultural contexts, 54, 56
History, 25, 26, 41, 54, 106, 123, 124,

129, 193, 198
Homemaker, 88–89, 94, 101,

106–107, 113
Household, 4–5, 18, 26, 34, 37, 53, 83,

86–87, 95, 97–100, 107
Identity, 15–16, 40, 52, 54, 56, 109,

138, 184, 185
Inequity, 29, 42, 63, 157, 170,

198–199
Institutional contradictions, 100
Interdependence, 25, 28–29, 85
Intersectionality, 51, 54–55
Intersubjective contingencies, 94
Intersubjectivity, 84–85, 198
Leadership, 54, 59, 68, 73, 109, 163,

164, 167, 169
Leadership development, 59
Living together apart, 99–100
Location decisions, 95
Marginalisation, 52, 55, 198
Market work, 17, 23–25, 27–31, 33,

35–42, 196–199
Mattering, 52
Meaning-making, 51, 140, 197
Midlife, 105–115
Military families, 86, 87, 95–97, 99
Mobility, 31, 66, 87, 98, 110, 114
Moral problem, 89–90

203

Page 206

SUBJECT INDEX

204

Mothering work, 51
Motivation, 6, 10–12, 132, 176, 182,

183–184
Stem careers, 175–187
Socialisation, 178–180

Older women, 114, 120–132, 152,
194, 196

Organisation, 131, 145, 146, 148,
152, 175

Paid parental leave, 101
Postmodernism, 53, 54
Power, 24–25
Professional families, 87, 95–96, 100
Professoriate, 157–158, 160, 168
Promotional opportunities, 73, 95, 97
Public-private dichotomy of work, 52
Race, 12, 51, 54–55, 63, 199
Recursiveness, 122–123, 125–127
Refl exivity, 84
Relational assessment, 58
Relational cultural paradigm, 51–59
Relational cultural practice, 57–59
Relational intervention, 58
Relational orientation, 59
Relational process, 52, 53, 58
Relational theories, 15–16
Relationship, 38–42
Relationships and career interview, 58
Relocations, 86–87, 95, 108
Role transitions, 105–106
Sexualities, 54–55
Single parents, 98–99
Social change, 100
Social class, 10–12, 16, 51, 193, 199

Social constructionism, 24, 55, 139–140,
195–197, 199

Social validation, 56, 58
Socially valued, 37, 52, 56
Space, 52, 86–87, 98–99, 140
Support, 12–15, 27, 35, 37, 58, 59, 63,

130–132, 142
Systems theory, 121, 128, 196, 199
Systems Theory Framework, 14, 120,

121–128, 193, 196, 200
Tandem careers, 97
The family career, 85, 86
Time, 84, 86, 87, 100, 140
Timing, 13, 69, 86, 88, 97, 98
Transitions, 105–115
Transport, 90
University culture, 159–160
Unpaid work, 4, 29, 34, 52–53, 56, 84,

86, 129, 131, 197
Validation, 56, 58, 59
Vocational development, 3
Vocational psychology,26, 27, 39, 55,

195–197
Women with family responsibilities, 84,

100, 194, 198
Women’s employment, 5, 27
Women’s career development, 3, 5,

11, 14, 17, 27, 68, 71, 75, 76,
120–121, 124, 127–128, 131,
137–153

Women’s careers, 63–75
Work and family integration, 25–27,

28–29, 30, 54, 57, 59, 65, 75
Workable solutions, 83–102

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