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TitleCliffsNotes Anatomy and Physiology Quick Review (Cliffsnotes Quick Review)
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LanguageEnglish
File Size2.8 MB
Total Pages370
Table of Contents
                            CliffsNotes® Anatomy & Physiology Quick Review, 2nd Edition
	Table of Contents
	INTRODUCTION
		Why You Need This Book
		How to Use This Book
		Hundreds of Practice Questions Online!
	Chapter 1: ANATOMY AND CHEMISTRY BASICS
		What Is Anatomy and Physiology?
		Atoms, Molecules, Ions, and Bonds
		Inorganic Compounds
		Organic Molecules
		Chemical Reactions in Metabolic Processes
	Chapter 2: THE CELL
		The Cell and Its Membrane
		Cell Junctions
		Movement of Substances
		Cell Division
	Chapter 3: TISSUES
		Epithelial Tissue
		Connective Tissue
		Nervous Tissue
		Muscle Tissue
	Chapter 4: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
		The Skin and Its Functions
		The Epidermis
		The Dermis
		The Hypodermis
		Accessory Organs of the Skin
	Chapter 5: BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES
		Functions of Bones
		Types of Bones
		Bone Structure
		Bone Development
		Bone Growth
		Bone Homeostasis
		Surface Features of Bones
	Chapter 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
		Organization of the Skeleton
		Skull: Cranium and Facial Bones
		Hyoid Bone
		Vertebral Column
		Thorax
		Pectoral Girdle
		Upper Limb
		Pelvic Girdle
		Lower Limb
	Chapter 7: ARTICULATIONS
		Classifying Joints
	Chapter 8: MUSCLE TISSUE
		Types of Muscles
		Connective Tissue Associated with Muscle Tissue
		Structure of Skeletal Muscle
		Muscle Contraction
		Muscle metabolism
		Structure of Cardiac and Smooth Muscle
	Chapter 9: THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
		Skeletal Muscle Actions
		Names of Skeletal Muscles
		Muscle Size and Arrangement of Muscle Fascicles
		Major Skeletal Muscles
	Chapter 10: NERVOUS TISSUE
		Neurons
		Neuroglia
		Myelination
		Transmission of Nerve Impulses
		The Synapse
	Chapter 11: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
		Nervous System Organization
		Nervous System Terminology
		The Brain
		The Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
		The Meninges
		The Blood-Brain Barrier
		Cranial Nerves
		The Spinal Cord
		Spinal Nerves
		Reflexes
		The Autonomic Nervous System
	Chapter 12: THE SENSORY SYSTEM
		Sensory Receptors
		The Somatic Senses
		Vision
		Hearing
		Equilibrium
		Smell
		Taste
	Chapter 13: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
		Hormones
		The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands
		Endocrine Organs and Tissues
		Antagonistic Hormones
	Chapter 14: THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
		The Functions
		The Blood
		Blood Formation
		Hemostasis
		Blood Groups
		Circulatory Pathways
		The Heart
		Cardiac Conduction
		Cardiac Muscle Contraction
		Electrocardiogram
		The Cardiac Cycle
		Cardiac Output
		Blood Vessels
		Blood Pressure
		Control of Blood Pressure
		Blood Vessels of the Body
	Chapter 15: THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
		Lymphatic System Components
		Lymphatic Vessels
		Lymphoid Cells
		Lymphatic Tissues and Organs
	Chapter 16: THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND OTHER BODY DEFENSES
		Protecting Your Body
		Nonspecific Barriers
		Nonspecific Defenses
		Specific Defense (The Immune System)
		Major Histocompatibility Complex
		Lymphocytes
		Antibodies
		Costimulation
		Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses
		Supplements to the Immune Response
	Chapter 17: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
		Function of the Respiratory System
		Structure of the Respiratory System
		Lungs
		Mechanics of Breathing
		Lung Volumes and Capacities
		Gas Exchange
		Gas Transport
		Control of Respiration
	Chapter 18: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
		Function of the Digestive System
		Structure of the Digestive Tract Wall
		Digestive Enzymes
		The Mouth
		The Pharynx
		The Esophagus
		Deglutition (Swallowing)
		The Stomach
		The Small Intestine
		Large Intestine
		The Pancreas
		The Liver and Gallbladder
		Regulation of Digestion
	Chapter 19: THE URINARY SYSTEM
		Anatomy of the Kidneys
		Regulation of Urine Concentration
		Ureters
		Urinary Bladder
		Urethra
	Chapter 20: THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
		What Is Reproduction?
		The Male Reproductive System
		The Female Reproduction System
	REVIEW QUESTIONS
	THE RESOURCE CENTER
	GLOSSARY
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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Page 185

Chapter 12: The Sensory System 175

degree to which the densities of the two substances differ. When
distant objects are sighted, the normal curvature of the lens appro-
priately compensates for the refraction due to the differences in den-
sities among the aqueous humor, the lens, and the vitreous humor.

■ Lens accommodation: Light rays from near objects enter the eyeball
at more divergent angles than rays from distant objects. Thus, when
near objects are sighted, muscles pull on the lens to increase its cur-
vature so that the more divergent rays of the close object are properly
refracted upon the retina.

■ Pupil constriction: One function of the pupil is to regulate the
amount of light that enters the posterior cavity so that the retina
receives the appropriate amount of stimulation. In addition, when
near objects are sighted, the pupil constricts (accommodation pupil-
lary reflex) to block the most divergent light rays that cannot be
brought into focus by the accommodation of the lens. Reading
under low levels of light may be difficult because the pupils are
dilated to allow all available light to enter rather than constricted to
improve focusing. Increasing the amount of light improves the abil-
ity to read because the surplus light permits the pupils to constrict
and the lens to focus a more narrow beam of light rays.

■ Eyeball convergence: Both eyes point in the same direction when
viewing a distant object. When near objects are sighted, the eyes
must be directed medially to simultaneously view the object, a pro-
cess called convergence.

Nerve impulses generated by visual stimuli travel along the axons of gan-
glion cells within the two optic nerves. Before entering the brain, axons
representing the medial portions of the visual fields of each eye cross over
at the optic chiasma. After the crossover, the axons, now forming the optic
tract, enter the thalamus. Processed visual stimuli are then carried to visual
areas of the occipital lobes of both cerebral hemispheres by nerve pathways
called the optic radiations. Because of the partial crossover at the optic
chiasma, each cerebral hemisphere receives the lateral portion of the visual
field of the eye on the same side of the body as the cerebral hemisphere, but
the medial portion of the visual field of the eye is interpreted on the oppo-
site side of the body. In addition, because of the action of the lens, the
image that forms on the retina and that is sent to the brain is inverted and
reversed right to left. The brain, however, interprets all of this seemingly
disparate visual information into a coherent perception of the real world.

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176 CliffsNotes Anatomy & Physiology Quick Review

Hearing

The organ of hearing, the ear, consists of three major regions, shown
in Figure 12-2.

■ The outer (external) ear consists of the auricle (pinna), a flap of
elastic cartilage that protrudes from the head, and the external audi-
tory canal (meatus), a tube that enters the temporal bone. The canal
is lined with ceruminous glands that secrete cerumen (earwax), a
sticky substance that traps dirt and other foreign objects. The ear-
drum (tympanic membrane), at the internal end of the external
auditory canal, vibrates in response to incident sound waves.

■ The middle ear (tympanic cavity) is an air-filled cavity within the
temporal bone. It contains three small bones, the auditory ossicles.
These bones, called the malleus, incus, and stapes, act as a lever
system that amplifies and transfers vibrations of the eardrum to the
inner ear. The malleus at one end connects to the eardrum, while the
stapes at the other end attaches with ligaments to the oval window,
a small, membrane-covered opening into the inner ear. Synovial
joints connect the incus, the center bone of the auditory ossicles, to
the malleus and stapes on each side. A second membrane-covered
opening to the inner ear, the round window (secondary tympanic
membrane), lies just below the oval window. A third opening leads
to the auditory (Eustachian) tube, which connects the middle ear to
the upper throat. The auditory tube allows pressure differences
between the middle and outer ear to equalize, thus reducing tension
on the eardrum. Two muscles in the middle ear, the tensor tympani
and the stapedius, connect to the malleus and stapes, respectively.
Contraction of these two muscles restricts the movement of the ear-
drum and auditory ossicles, reducing damage that may occur when
they are exposed to excessive vibration from loud noises.

■ The inner (internal) ear, also called the labyrinth, is a system of
double-walled canals. The canals consist of an outer bony (osseous)
labyrinth that encloses an inner membranous labyrinth. Perilymph
fills the space between the two labyrinths, and endolymph fills the
inner labyrinth. This double-layer labyrinth structure is found
throughout the following inner ear structures. This labyrinth is
made of three semicircular canals and a snail-shaped cochlea (see
Figure 12-2).

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Page 369

Notes

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Page 370

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