Download CIBSE Guide D - Transportation Systems in Buildings (4th Edition) PDF

TitleCIBSE Guide D - Transportation Systems in Buildings (4th Edition)
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Total Pages358
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
	1.1 Purpose of Guide D
	1.2 Recent Developments
	1.3 Contents of Guide D
	1.4 Other Sources of Information
2. Interior Circulation
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 General Considerations
		2.2.1 Basic Factors
		2.2.2 Design Factors
		2.2.3 Coordination Factors
		2.2.4 Efficiency Factors
	2.3 Human Factors
		2.3.1 Human Physical Dimensions
		2.3.2 Human Personal Space
	2.4 Circulation Elements
		2.4.1 Corridor Capacity
		2.4.2 Portal Capacity
		2.4.3 Stairway Capacity
		2.4.4 Escalator Handling Capacity
		2.4.5 Moving Walk Handling Capacity
		2.4.6 Handling Capacity of Lifts
	2.5 Circulation in Particular Types of Buildings
		2.5.1 Airports
		2.5.2 Car Parks
		2.5.3 Department Stores
		2.5.4 Entertainment Centres, Cinemas, Theatres, Sports Centres, Stadia and Concert Halls
		2.5.5 Hospitals
		2.5.6 Hotels
		2.5.7 Offices
		2.5.8 Railway Stations
		2.5.9 Residential Buildings
		2.5.10 Residential Care Homes and Nursing Homes
		2.5.11 Shopping Centres General Considerations Practical Levels of Shopper Movements
		2.5.12 Universities and other Education Buildings
	2.6 Location and Arrangement of Transportation Facilities
		2.6.1 General
		2.6.2 Stairs
		2.6.3 Escalators and Moving Walks
		2.6.4 Lifts
		2.6.5 Lifts versus Escalators
	2.7 Facilities for Persons with Special Needs
3. Traffic Planning and Selection of Lift Equipment and Performance
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Symbols
	3.3 Definitions
	3.4 Traffic Patterns
	3.5 Sizing an Existing Lift Installation
		3.5.1 The Round Trip Time RTT Equation
		3.5.2 Evaluating Up-Peak Interval, Up-Peak Handling Capacity and Percentage Population Served
		3.5.3 Values for Average Highest Reversal Floor H and Average Number of Stops S
		3.5.4 Value for Number of Floors N
		3.5.5 Value for Average Number of Passengers P
		3.5.6 Value for Floor Transit Time t_v
		3.5.7 Value for Rated Speed v
		3.5.8 Value for Performance Time T
		3.5.9 Value for Single Floor Flight Time t_f 1
		3.5.10 Value for Start Delay t_sd
		3.5.11 Values for Door Closing t_c and Door Opening t_o Times
		3.5.12 Value for Advance Door Opening Time t_ad
		3.5.13 Value for Average One-Way Single Passenger Transfer Time t_p
	3.6 Round Trip Time Equation: Frequently Asked Questions
		3.6.1 Do Passengers Arrive Uniformly in Time?
		3.6.2 Are Lifts Loaded to an Average Load of 80%?
		3.6.3 Are All Floors are Equally Populated?
		3.6.4 Is Rated Speed Reached in a Single Floor Jump and are Interfloor Heights Equal?
		3.6.5 What are Landing and Car Call Dwell Times?
		3.6.6 What are Lobby Loading Times?
		3.6.7 Is the Traffic Controller Ideal?
		3.6.8 Footnote to Up-Peak Round Trip Time Calculations
		3.6.9 Example 3.1
	3.7 Passenger Times during Up-Peak Traffic Demand
		3.7.1 Passenger Average Waiting Time AWT
		3.7.2 Passenger Average Transit Time ATT
		3.7.3 Passenger Average Travel Time to Destination ATTD
		3.7.4 Passenger Average Journey Time AJT
		3.7.5 Target Passenger Times and Lift System Response Times
	3.8 Sizing of Office Lifts to Meet Passenger Demands
		3.8.1 Estimation of Office Building Population
		3.8.2 Estimating Office Building Floor Area
		3.8.3 Estimating Office Building Population from Floor Area
		3.8.4 Estimating Passenger Arrival Rate
		3.8.5 Quality of Service
		3.8.6 Example 3.2
	3.9 Traffic Conditions other than Up-Peak
		3.9.1 Down-Peak Traffic Condition
		3.9.2 Mid-Day Traffic Condition
		3.9.3 Interfloor Traffic Condition
		3.9.4 General Analysis
	3.10 Equipment Selection with Respect to Lift Function
		3.10.1 Double Deck Lifts
		3.10.2 Firefighting Lifts
		3.10.3 Goods Lifts
		3.10.4 Observation Glass/Scenic Lifts
		3.10.5 Shuttle Lifts
		3.10.6 Lifts Sharing a Common Well Shaft
	3.11 Equipment Selection with Respect to Building Form
		3.11.1 Basement Service and Floors Served by Only Part of a Lift Group
		3.11.2 Entrance Bias
		3.11.3 Stairs
		3.11.4 Attractive Building Facilities
		3.11.5 Lobby Design
		3.11.6 Tall Buildings
		3.11.7 Very Tall Buildings
		3.11.8 Example 3.3
	3.12 Equipment Selection with Respect to Building Function
		3.12.1 Airports
		3.12.2 Car Parks
		3.12.3 Department Stores
		3.12.4 Entertainment Centres, Cinemas, Theatres, Sports Centres, Stadia and Concert Halls
		3.12.5 Hospitals
		3.12.6 Hotels
		3.12.7 Offices
		3.12.8 Railway Stations
		3.12.9 Residential Buildings
		3.12.10 Residential Care Homes and Nursing Homes
		3.12.11 Shopping Centres
		3.12.12 Universities and other Education Buildings
	3.13 Review of All Traffic Conditions
	3.14 Finally
	Appendix 3.A1: Table of Values of H and S
4. Advanced Planning Techniques and Computer Programs
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Simulation
	4.3 Describing Traffic
		4.3.1 Preface
		4.3.2 Mixed Traffic
		4.3.3 Complex Traffic
	4.4 Measuring Traffic
		4.4.1 Need for Traffic Surveys
		4.4.2 Manual Passenger Traffic Surveys
		4.4.3 Automated Traffic Analysers
	4.5 Theoretical Simulation Templates
		4.5.1 CIBSE Classic Office Up-Peak Template
		4.5.2 Step Profile
		4.5.3 Constant Traffic
	4.6 Simulation Templates Derived from Traffic Survey
		4.6.1 Preamble
		4.6.2 Traffic Research
		4.6.3 Observations
		4.6.4 Design Templates
	4.7 Other Considerations
		4.7.1 Running Multiple Simulations
		4.7.2 Start and End Effects
	4.8 Design Examples
		4.8.1 Example 4.1
		4.8.2 Example 4.2
		4.8.3 Example 4.3
		4.8.4 Example 4.4
		4.8.5 Discussion of Examples
	4.9 Simulation Applied to Modernisation
	4.10 Comparing Simulation with Round Trip Time Calculation Results
	4.11 Traffic Analysis and Simulation Software
		4.11.1 Evaluating Analysis Software
		4.11.2 Comparing Results between Different Simulation Programs
	4.12 Epilogue
	Appendix 4.A1: Symbols and Formulae
		4.A1.1 List of Symbols
		4.A1.2 Formulae
5. Types of Transportation Systems
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Passenger Lifts
		5.2.1 General
		5.2.2 Applications of Passenger Lifts Airports Car Parks Department Stores Entertainment Centres, Cinemas, Theatres, Sports Centres, Stadia and Concert Halls Hospitals Hotels Offices Railway Stations Residential Buildings Residential Care Homes and Nursing Homes Shopping Centres Universities and other Education Buildings
		5.2.3 Car Size and Payloads
		5.2.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.2.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds Traditional Electric Traction Drive Hydraulic Drive Machine Room-Less Electric Traction Drive Counterweight-Less Electric Traction Drive
		5.2.6 Well
		5.2.7 Machine Room Traditional Electric Traction Lifts Hydraulic Lifts Machine Room-Less Lifts
	5.3 Goods Passenger Lifts
		5.3.1 General
		5.3.2 Applications for Goods Passenger Lifts Airports Car Parks Department Stores Entertainment Centres, Cinemas, Theatres, Sports Centres, Stadia and Concert Halls Hospitals Hotels Offices Railway Stations Residential Buildings Residential Care Homes and Nursing Homes Shopping Centres Universities and other Education Buildings
		5.3.3 Car Sizes and Payloads
		5.3.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.3.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds Traditional Electric Traction Drive Hydraulic Drive Machine Room-Less Electric Traction Drive Rack and Pinion Drive
		5.3.6 Well Dimensions and Construction
		5.3.7 Machine Room Traditional Electric Traction Lifts Hydraulic Lifts Machine Room-Less Lifts Rack and Pinion Drive
	5.4 Goods-Only Lifts
	5.5 Observation Lifts
		5.5.1 General
		5.5.2 Application of Observation Lifts Airports Car Parks Department Stores Entertainment Centres, Cinemas, Theatres, Sports Centres, Stadia and Concert Halls Hospitals Hotels Offices Railway Stations Residential Buildings Residential Care Homes and Nursing Homes Shopping Centres Universities and other Education Buildings
		5.5.3 Car Size and Payload
		5.5.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.5.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.5.6 Well
		5.5.7 Machine Room
	5.6 Service Lifts
		5.6.1 General
		5.6.2 Applications
		5.6.3 Car Size and Payloads
		5.6.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.6.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.6.6 Well
		5.6.7 Machine Room
	5.7 Motor Vehicle Lifts
		5.7.1 General
		5.7.2 Applications
		5.7.3 Car Sizes and Payloads
		5.7.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.7.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.7.6 Well
		5.7.7 Machine Room
	5.8 Rack and Pinion Lifts
		5.8.1 General
		5.8.2 Applications
		5.8.3 Car Size and Payload
		5.8.4 Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes
		5.8.5 Types of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.8.6 Runway
		5.8.7 Machinery Location
	5.9 Lifts for other Purposes
		5.9.1 Firefighting Lifts
		5.9.2 Evacuation Lifts
		5.9.3 Passenger Lifts for Use by Persons with Disabilities General Applications Car Size and Payload Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes Type of Drive and Operating Speeds Well Machine Room
		5.9.4 Lifting Platforms for Use by Persons with Disabilities General Application Car Size and Payload Entrances, Car Fittings and Finishes Type of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.9.5 Stairlifts for Use by Persons with Disabilities General Application Car Size and Payload Type of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.9.6 Explosion Protected Lifts
		5.9.7 Goods Scissor Lifts General Application Platform Size and Payloads Type of Drive and Operating Speeds
		5.9.8 Inclined Lifts General Application Car Sizes and Payload Type of Drive and Operating Speed Travel Path/Runway Machine Room
	5.10 Future Concepts
	Appendix 5.A1: Car, Well, Headroom, Pit and Machine Room Sizes
6. Firefighting Lifts and Escape Lifts for People with Disabilities
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Need for Firefighting Lifts
		6.2.1 General
		6.2.2 History and Development
		6.2.3 Scope of BS 9999: 2008
		6.2.4 General Lift Requirements of BS 9999
	6.3 Design Considerations for Firefighting Lifts
		6.3.1 General
		6.3.2 Car Entrances
		6.3.3 Machine Room Location
		6.3.4 Protection of Lift Shaft from Water
		6.3.5 Power Supplies
		6.3.6 Firefighter's Switch and Operation
		6.3.7 Owner's Information Manual
	6.4 Testing and Maintenance of Firefighting Lifts
		6.4.1 Operational Tests prior to Handover
		6.4.2 Routine Inspection and Maintenance
	6.5 Evacuation Lifts for Persons with Limited Mobility
		6.5.1 General
		6.5.2 Access/Egress for Persons with Limited Mobility
		6.5.3 Evacuation Lifts for Healthcare Buildings
	6.6 Design Considerations for Evacuation Lifts
		6.6.1 General
		6.6.2 Operation of the Communication System
		6.6.3 Other Considerations
	6.7 Using Lifts for General Evacuation
7. Lift Components and Installation
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Electric Traction Drives
		7.2.1 General
		7.2.2 Gearless Machines Sheave Shaft Load Drive Sheave
		7.2.3 Geared Machines Motor Gearbox Worm Wheel Gear Life Drive Sheave
		7.2.4 Brake
		7.2.5 Machine Bedplate
		7.2.6 Planning and Layout
		7.2.7 Machine Position Top Drive: Machine Adjacent Bottom Drive: Machine below Bottom Drive: Machine Adjacent
		7.2.8 Machine Room-Less Lifts
		7.2.9 Linear Induction Drives
		7.2.10 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
		7.2.11 Car Arrest Systems Rope Brake Sheave Brake
	7.3 Hydraulic Drives
		7.3.1 General
		7.3.2 Cylinder Arrangements Direct Acting Single Side-Acting Twin Tandem Cylinders
		7.3.3 Power Units
		7.3.4 Pump and Motor
		7.3.5 Control Valve
		7.3.6 Hydraulic Cylinder
	7.4 Controller Cabinet
	7.5 Guide Rails
		7.5.1 General
		7.5.2 Position of Rails
		7.5.3 Size of Rails
		7.5.4 Alignment of Rails
		7.5.5 Rail Fixings
		7.5.6 Length of Rails
		7.5.7 Guide Shoes
	7.6 Counterweight
		7.6.1 General
		7.6.2 Counterweight Sheave
		7.6.3 Counterweight Safety Gear
		7.6.4 Compensation
	7.7 Lift Car
		7.7.1 General
		7.7.2 Car Frame Sling
		7.7.3 Platform/Enclosure Assembly
		7.7.4 Car Safety Gear
	7.8 Door Operators
		7.8.1 General
		7.8.2 Principles of Operation
		7.8.3 Door Operator Motors
		7.8.4 Door Operating Times
		7.8.5 Installation
		7.8.6 Passenger Safety Devices
	7.9 Door Configurations
		7.9.1 General
		7.9.2 Single Hinged, Manual Doors
		7.9.3 Horizontal Power-Operated Sliding Doors
		7.9.4 Two-Speed, Power-Operated Doors
		7.9.5 Centre-Opening, Power-Operated Doors
		7.9.6 Wide Entrance Doors
		7.9.7 Multi-Leaf Gates
		7.9.8 Vertical Bi-Parting Doors
		7.9.9 Materials and Finishes
		7.9.10 Fire Rating
	7.10 Overspeed Governors
		7.10.1 General
		7.10.2 Governor Activation
		7.10.3 Governor Resetting
	7.11 Safety Gear
		7.11.1 General
		7.11.2 Instantaneous Safety Gear
		7.11.3 Instantaneous Safety Gear with Buffered Effect
		7.11.4 Progressive Safety Gear
		7.11.5 Resetting the Safety Gear
		7.11.6 Safety Gear Activating Devices
		7.11.7 Bi-Directional Safety Gear
		7.11.8 Type-Tested Safety Gear
	7.12 Buffers
		7.12.1 General
		7.12.2 Energy Accumulation Buffers
		7.12.3 Energy Dissipation Buffers
		7.12.4 Type-Tested Buffers
		7.12.5 Active Buffers
	7.13 Uncontrolled Movement Devices
		7.13.1 Uncontrolled Upward Movement
		7.13.2 Uncontrolled Movement from a Landing with the Lift Doors Open
	7.14 Suspension Systems
		7.14.1 Steel Ropes Steel Ropes: General Steel Rope Construction Steel Rope Sizes Steel Rope Lays
		7.14.2 Aramid Ropes Aramid Rope Construction Aramid Rope Condition Monitoring
		7.14.3 Flat Belts Flat Belt Construction Belt Condition Monitoring
		7.14.4 Safety Factor for Suspension
		7.14.5 Terminations
		7.14.6 Rope Length and Rope Stretch
	7.15 Roping Systems
		7.15.1 General
		7.15.2 Rope Compensation
		7.15.3 Traction Systems
	7.16 Car and Landing Fixtures and Inspection Controls
		7.16.1 General
		7.16.2 Push Buttons
		7.16.3 Lift Position Indicators
		7.16.4 Lift Direction Indicators
		7.16.5 Hall Lanterns
		7.16.6 Passenger Communication and Alarm Devices
		7.16.7 Inspection Controls
	7.17 Guarding
8. Lift Drives and Controls
	8.1 Introduction
		8.1.1 Performance Parameters
		8.1.2 Operation Monitoring
	8.2 Lift Controllers
		8.2.1 General
		8.2.2 Lift Control Options
		8.2.3 Fail-Safe Operation
		8.2.4 Controller Cabinet and its Location
	8.3 Controller Technology
		8.3.1 General
		8.3.2 Electromechanical Switching
		8.3.3 Solid-State Logic Technology
		8.3.4 Computer-Based Technology
		8.3.5 Programmable Electronic Systems in Safety Related Applications PESSRAL
		8.3.6 Building Security Systems
	8.4 Control of Lift Drives
		8.4.1 General
		8.4.2 Motor Speed Reference Time-Based Speed Reference Distance-Based Speed Reference
		8.4.3 Protection against Failure of Feedback Systems
		8.4.4 Traction Lift Hoisting Motor Rating
	8.5 DC Motor Control Techniques
		8.5.1 Ward Leonard Set
		8.5.2 Static Converter Drives
	8.6 AC Motor Control Techniques
		8.6.1 Variable Voltage Drive with Single-Speed Motor
		8.6.2 Variable Voltage Drive with Two-Speed Motor
		8.6.3 Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency Drives
		8.6.4 Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency Drives with PMSMs
		8.6.5 Linear Induction Drives
	8.7 Control of Hydraulic Drives
		8.7.1 Control Valves
		8.7.2 Speed Control
		8.7.3 Anti-Creep Devices
		8.7.4 Hydraulic Drives with Energy Accumulators
		8.7.5 Variable Frequency Pump Motor Drive
	8.8 Control of Door Operators
		8.8.1 General
		8.8.2 Control of DC Door Operators
		8.8.3 Control of AC Door Operators
		8.8.4 Electronic Control of AC Door Operators
	8.9 Electromagnetic Compatibility, Environment and Reliability
9. Lift Traffic Control
	9.1 The Need for Lift Traffic Control
	9.2 Single Lift Traffic Control
		9.2.1 Single Call Automatic Control
		9.2.2 Collective Control Non-Directional Collective Down Collective Up-Distributive, Down-Collective Full Collective Directional Collective
	9.3 Purpose of Group Traffic Control
	9.4 Types of Traffic Control Algorithm
		9.4.1 Legacy Traffic Control Systems Nearest Car Fixed Sectoring; Common Sector System Fixed Sectoring; Priority Timed System Dynamic Sectoring System
		9.4.2 Modern Traffic Control Systems Estimated Time of Arrival ETA Quality of Service Equalisation Hall Call Allocation HCA Control
	9.5 Advanced Group Traffic Controller Features
		9.5.1 Use of Artificial Intelligence in Group Traffic Control
		9.5.2 Methods of Detecting Traffic Patterns and the Incidence of Peak Traffic
		9.5.3 Data Logging
		9.5.4 Centralised and Distributed Control and Back-up
	9.6 Other Features of Group Traffic Control Systems
		9.6.1 Load Bypass
		9.6.2 Up-Peak Service
		9.6.3 Down-Peak Service
		9.6.4 Heavy Demand Floors
		9.6.5 Lobby and Preferential Floor Service
		9.6.6 Parking Policy
		9.6.7 Car Preference Service
		9.6.8 Fire and Evacuation Service
		9.6.9 Other Facilities
	9.7 Effect of Traffic Control Algorithm on Traffic Design
		9.7.1 Introduction to Up-Peak Boosters
		9.7.2 Up-Peak Boosting by Subzoning
		9.7.3 Up-Peak Boosting by Sectoring
		9.7.4 Up-Peak Boosting by Hall Call Allocation
		9.7.5 Boosting Summary
	9.8 Design Case Study
		9.8.1 Background
		9.8.2 Boosting the Lift Capacity
	9.9 Installation Case Study
		9.9.1 Background
		9.9.2 Complaint Resolution
	9.10 Improvement Verification Case Study
10. Escalators and Moving Walks
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Definitions, Commonly Available Equipment and Duty
		10.2.1 Definitions
		10.2.2 Commonly Available Equipment
		10.2.3 Duty
	10.3 Principal Components
	10.4 Installation Planning
		10.4.1 Specifying the Equipment
		10.4.2 Traffic Sizing
		10.4.3 Location
		10.4.4 Aesthetic Design
		10.4.5 Safe Use of Escalators and Moving Walks
		10.4.6 Machine Rooms
		10.4.7 Electrical Supply and Electromagnetic Compatibility
		10.4.8 Noise
		10.4.9 Fire Protection
		10.4.10 Installing Equipment
	10.5 Drive Systems, Energy Usage and Safety Devices
		10.5.1 Motor Sizing and Selection
		10.5.2 Methods of Starting
		10.5.3 Modular Escalator Drives
		10.5.4 Energy Usage
		10.5.5 Safety Devices
	10.6 Ride Quality of Escalators and Moving Walks
	10.7 Existing Escalators and Moving Walks
11. Transportation Facilities for Persons with Disabilities
	11.1 Access for Everyone
	11.2 Disability or Impairment?
	11.3 Summary of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995
	11.4 Building Regulations Approved Document M
	11.5 Equipment Selection to Meet User Needs
		11.5.1 Existing and Future User Needs
		11.5.2 Rated Load
		11.5.3 User Position
		11.5.4 Entrance Facilities
		11.5.5 Control Devices
		11.5.6 Location
		11.5.7 Duty Cycle
		11.5.8 Alarm System
		11.5.9 Type of Wheelchair
	11.6 Environmental Considerations
	11.7 Equipment Provision
		11.7.1 Provision to the Machinery Directive or the Lift Directive
		11.7.2 Passenger Lifts
		11.7.3 Lifting Platforms Lifting Platforms with Enclosed Liftways Lifting Platforms with Non-Enclosed Liftways
		11.7.4 Domestic 'through the Floor' Lifting Platforms
		11.7.5 Stairlifts
	11.8 Escalators and Moving Walks
	11.9 Egress for Persons with Disabilities
	11.10 Selection of Lifting Devices
	Appendix 11.A1: Summary of the Principal Requirements of BS EN 81-70
12. Electrical Systems and Environmental Conditions
	12.1 Introduction
	12.2 Lift Power Supplies
	12.3 Lift Power Factor Correction
	12.4 Protection of Supplies
	12.5 Standby Power
	12.6 Isolating Switches, Lighting and Socket Outlets
	12.7 Harmonic Distortion
	12.8 Electromagnetic Interference
	12.9 Cabling and Wiring
		12.9.1 Cable Sizing
		12.9.2 Cable Routes and Protection
		12.9.3 Wiring Interfaces
		12.9.4 Maintenance Safety and Records
	12.10 Machine Room Environment
		12.10.1 Temperature Considerations
		12.10.2 Ventilation
		12.10.3 Heating
		12.10.4 Cooling
		12.10.5 Lighting
	12.11 Lift Well Environment
	12.12 Lift Car Environment
	12.13 Human Comfort Considerations
		12.13.1 Noise
		12.13.2 Vibration
		12.13.3 Acceleration and Deceleration
		12.13.4 Jerk
		12.13.5 Communication with Trapped Passengers
		12.13.6 Lighting at Landings
	12.14 Environment for Maintenance
		12.14.1 General
		12.14.2 Lift Well
		12.14.3 Machine Room
		12.14.4 Machine Room-Less Installations
		12.14.5 Physical Requirements
		12.14.6 Maintenance of Third Party Equipment
	12.15 Lightning Protection
	Appendix 12.A1: Schedules for Electrical Systems Requirements
13. Energy Consumption of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks
	13.1 Legislative Provisions
	13.2 Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency
	13.3 Energy Consumption of Lifts
	13.4 Factors Affecting Lift Energy Consumption
		13.4.1 Mechanical System
		13.4.2 Drive System
		13.4.3 Control System
		13.4.4 Electrical System
		13.4.5 Duty
		13.4.6 Regenerating Energy Back into the Supply
	13.5 Measuring the Energy Consumption of Lifts
		13.5.1 Measurement Method
		13.5.2 Normalising the Energy Consumed
		13.5.3 Energy Verification
	13.6 Estimating the Energy Consumption of Lifts
	13.7 Factors Affecting Consumption of Escalators and Moving Walks
	13.8 Estimating the Energy Consumption of Escalators and Moving Walks
		13.8.1 Escalators
		13.8.2 Moving Walks
	13.9 Measuring the Energy Consumption of Escalators and Moving Walks
		13.9.1 Energy Measurements
		13.9.2 Energy Verification
	13.10 Measures to Conserve Energy
		13.10.1 Lifts
		13.10.2 Escalators and Moving Walks
	13.11 Building Energy Classification Systems
		13.11.1 BREEAM
		13.11.2 Compliance Requirements for Lifts
		13.11.3 Compliance Requirements for Escalators and Moving Walks
	13.12 Future Legislation
	13.13 Conclusions
14. Remote Monitoring and Alarms
	14.1 Reasons for Remote Alarms and Remote Monitoring
	14.2 Remote Lift Alarms
		14.2.1 Remote Alarms and BS EN 81: Part 28
		14.2.2 Communication Protocol for Part 28 Remote Alarms
	14.3 Remote Lift Monitoring Systems
		14.3.1 General Features of Lift Monitoring Systems
		14.3.2 Estate Management
		14.3.3 Grouped Systems
	14.4 Building Management Systems
		14.4.1 Benefits of Connection with a BMS
		14.4.2 Interfacing with Building Management Systems
		14.4.3 Communication Systems and Interconnection Protocols
	14.5 Escalators and Moving Walks
15. Commissioning, Preventative Maintenance, Testing and Thorough Examination of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks
	15.1 Introduction
	15.2 Commissioning
		15.2.1 General Conditions
		15.2.2 Off-Site Checks during Manufacture
		15.2.3 On-Site Checks during Installation
		15.2.4 Commissioning of Lifts New Electric Traction Lifts New Hydraulic Lifts Lifts Subject to Important Modifications Modernised Lifts
		15.2.5 Commissioning of Escalators and Moving Walks
		15.2.6 On-Site Checks after Completion
	15.3 Preventative Maintenance
		15.3.1 Why Maintenance is Necessary
		15.3.2 Maintenance Contracts
	15.4 Thorough Examinations and Tests
		15.4.1 Competent Persons
		15.4.2 Thorough Examination of Lifts
		15.4.3 Periodic Testing of Lifts
		15.4.4 Thorough Examination of Escalators and Moving Walks
	15.5 Documentation
16. Upgrading of Safety, Performance and Equipment for Existing Lifts
	16.1 Introduction
	16.2 Life Cycle Considerations
	16.3 Influencing Factors to Upgrading
	16.4 Relevant Legislation, Standards and Codes of Practice
	16.5 Undertaking Modifications to Lifts Installed before 1 July 1999
	16.6 Undertaking Modifications to Lifts Installed after 1 July 1999
	16.7 Important Considerations When Undertaking Modifications to Existing Lifts
	16.8 Step-by-Step Approach to Improving the Safety of Existing Lifts
	16.9 Improvement in Accessibility
	16.10 Improvement in Protection from Vandalism
	16.11 Improvement in Performance
	16.12 Improvement by Minor Replacement of Major Components
	16.13 Summary of Modifications Undertaken to Existing Lifts
	16.14 Tests and Records
17. European Directives, Legislation, Standards and Codes of Practice
	17.1 Important Note
	17.2 European Directives
		17.2.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive
		17.2.2 Framework Directive
		17.2.3 Lifts Directive
		17.2.4 Low Voltage Directive
		17.2.5 Machinery Directive
	17.3 Acts of Parliament
		17.3.1 Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and 2005
		17.3.2 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
	17.4 Regulations
		17.4.1 Construction Design and Management Regulations 2007
		17.4.2 Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006
		17.4.3 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002
		17.4.4 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
		17.4.5 Electrical Equipment Safety Regulations 1994
		17.4.6 Health and Safety Safety Signs and Signals Regulations 1996
		17.4.7 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
		17.4.8 Lifts Regulations 1997
		17.4.9 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
		17.4.10 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
		17.4.11 Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002
		17.4.12 Supply of Machinery Safety Regulations 2008
		17.4.13 Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992
		17.4.14 Work at Height Regulations 2005
		17.4.15 Other Regulations
	17.5 Standards and Codes of Practice
		17.5.1 British Standards Institution
		17.5.2 Interpretation of Standards
		17.5.3 EN 81 Family of Standards
18. Construction Design and Management Regulations 2007
	18.1 General
	18.2 Introduction
		18.2.1 Is the Project Notifiable?
		18.2.2 Duty Holders
		18.2.3 Competence and Training
		18.2.4 Documentation Pre-Construction Information Construction Phase Plan Health and Safety File
	18.3 Summary of Part 4: Duties Relating to Health and Safety on Construction Sites
		18.3.1 Introduction
		18.3.2 Summary of Regulations
	Appendix 18.A1: Duties of Duty Holders
		18.A1.1 Client's Duties
		18.A1.2 CDM Coordinator's Duties
		18.A1.3 Designer's Duties
		18.A1.4 Principal Contractor's Duties
		18.A1.5 Contractor's Duties
	Appendix A1: Glossary of Terms
		A1.1 Introduction
Document Text Contents
Page 1


Page 179

Lift traffic control 9-9

Some systems limit the service to up and down landing
calls above the main terminal during up-peak. During up-
peak any passenger wishing to travel up from floors other
than the main terminal floor should have little difficulty,
as the lifts are frequently stopping at the floors, whilst
travelling upwards, to discharge passengers. However,
passengers wishing to travel down may find a restricted
service or no service at all during the 10–15 minutes of
heavy up-peak demand. This strategy should be applied
with caution. It may increase the handling capacity of the
system, but at the expense of very poor performance for
outgoing and (down) interfloor traffic, which in modern
buildings is a significant part of the traffic demand during
the up-peak period, see Figure 4.10.

9.6.3 Down-peak service

Group control systems frequently include a means to
detect down-peak traffic situations, employing similar
methods as those used for up-peak detection, but
considering heavy loaded lift arrivals at the main terminal
floor. Whilst the down-peak condition applies, these
systems restrict the service provided to any up traffic and
cancel the allocation of lifts to the main terminal, whilst
the traffic condition lasts.

Unlike up-peak, where the lifts start and finish their
round trips at the main terminal, during down-peak lifts
can start their journey anywhere in the building before
travelling to the main terminal. If the lifts are commanded
to travel to a high call reversal floor, the lower floors may
be starved of service as cars can arrive (or pass by) fully
loaded. One system which avoids this groups the down
landing calls into sectors and assigns lifts to serve call
groups in the sectors in a ‘round robin’ fashion.

9.6.4 Heavy demand floors

Heavy floor demands can occur, for example, at the
closing of a meeting or lecture. It is then justifiable to
bring extra lifts to the floor to deal with such peaks of

A simple method is to detect at individual floors that a
fully loaded lift has left that floor and a new landing call
has been registered within, say, 2.0 s for the same direction
of travel. The traffic controller can then send free lifts to
this floor.

Where controllers use sector-based algorithms, the num -
ber of landing calls in each sector can be evaluated and
compared with the average number of landing calls per
sector. A particular sector exceeding the average value by
more than a predefined quantity can be set up as a heavy
traffic sector. Extra lifts can then be brought to this sector,
bypassing the landing calls at other sectors.

9.6.5 Lobby and preferential
floor service

The lobby or main terminal floor in a building is normally
of great importance, owing to the steady flow of incoming
passengers and/or outgoing passengers during some
periods of the day. Preferential service is usually provided
for these passengers by parking a lift at the main terminal

prior to any other sector. The lobby floor preferential
service implies that a slightly poorer service is provided to
the remaining floors in the building. This feature is highly
undesirable under certain traffic conditions, such as

A feature called ‘director’ or ‘VIP’ service gives special
service to floors where senior executives or directors are
located. The lift system can be made to recognise landing
calls at such floors and to treat them with higher priority.
Alternatively, key operated switches may be available at
these preferred landings or destination entry devices may
accept VIP codes, which cause a lift to travel direct to the
executive floor bypassing all other landing calls, or a lift
may be completely segregated out of the bank of lifts for
directors’ service. It is obvious that this sort of preferential
treatment can seriously affect the efficiency of the service
as a whole, and it should be avoided whenever possible.

9.6.6 Parking policy

Under light to medium traffic conditions, a lift frequently
has no calls to answer. The lift is then free for further
assignments and, if no further demand exists, it might be
parked at its current position, or at a convenient floor, or
in a sector in the building zone. The parking procedure is
mainly intended to distribute the lifts evenly around the
building. A proper parking policy is essential for good lift
system performance, particularly in tall buildings. At the
design stage, a suitable number of floors, in addition to the
main terminal floor, should be identified where the lifts
may be parked. These could include, for example, base -
ment areas, leisure, restaurant and facility floors.

9.6.7 Car preference service

When a lift is taken out of normal passenger control to be
exclusively operated from the inside of the lift, it is said to
be in car preference service (also known as independent
service), emergency service or hospital service.

One method is to make the transfer by a key operated
switch in the lift, which causes the doors to remain open
until a car call is registered for floor destination. All
landing calls are bypassed and car position indicators on
the landings for the lift are not illuminated. The removal
of the key, when the special operation is complete, returns
the lift to normal control.

Another method is for the authorised user to enter a code
and/or other security device into a destination entry
device which can then prompt the user to select which car
is to be put into independent service.

Car preference may be useful to give a special personal
service, or for an attendant to have complete control of the
lift, whenever it is required. A typical example is in
hospital buildings, where lifts for carrying beds and
stretchers require the provision of a car preference switch.

9.6.8 Fire and evacuation service

Some lifts may be designed as firefighters lifts (to BS EN
81-72(6)) or the older (now obsolete) ‘fireman’s lifts’ and
special recall features are provided. Some lifts may be

Page 180

9-10 Transportation systems in buildings

designated as evacuation lifts provided to allow the safe
egress of persons with mobility problems. These are
complex areas (see chapter 6) and expert assistance should
be sought. BS EN 81-73(7) defines the behaviour of a lift in
the event of fire.

9.6.9 Other facilities

Some lifts may be designated to provide service to persons
with disabilities to BS EN 81-70(5) (see chapters 6 and 11).
This is also a complex area and expert assistance should be

The provision of suitable indicators, lanterns and gongs to
indicate lift arrivals and direction at landings, their
direction and floor indication in the car and other landing
and in-car announcements are important to ensure
improved passenger communication. These can require
special interfacing to the group control system.

Another useful feature is the provision of anti-nuisance
devices to ensure that a lift does not answer car calls, if it
is empty. This avoids unnecessary car trips and stops due
to a practical joker who registers car calls, sometimes
pressing or touching all the car pushbuttons when leaving
the lift.

Other features that improve the efficiency of people
movement which should be considered are:

— adjustable car and landing call door dwell times

— differential door timing

— limiting the number of door re-opening sequences
on the re-registering of a landing call at a floor
where a lift is about to depart

— adjustable sound levels on gongs at all floors and
in-car voice announcements

— easily seen and brightly illuminated position
indicators on landings and in the back and the
front of the car

— advanced door opening at landings

— multiple car operating panels (COPs) in large lifts

— combining security checks and lift service requests
in hall call allocation systems.

Early call announcement (ECA) is a feature popular in
some Asian countries. With ECA, the assignment of a lift to
a landing call is immediate and fixed. This allows the
gong and directional indicator of the assigned car to be
announced immediately. The traffic control system cannot
change its assignment when other passengers introduce
new calls; this degrades service. However, early announce -
ment of the call helps efficient loading as passengers have
more time to reach and stand in front of the assigned car.

9.7 Effect of traffic control
algorithm on traffic

9.7.1 Introduction to up-peak

Chapters 3 and 4 indicate traffic design methods to size an
installation to meet the expected passenger demand.
Chapter 3 dealt with methods that are independent of the
traffic control system used. The simulation methods
outlined in chapter 4, however, allow an actual traffic
control system to be simulated against a defined passenger

Owing to the fact that the up-peak traffic has, in the past,
usually been the most demanding type of traffic for lift
systems, most traditional algorithms are built around that
type of traffic. Moreover, much of the terminology and the
methodology used in lift design still rely on the concept of
meeting a heavy up-peak influx over a period of five
minutes by circulating lifts at the main terminal,
delivering the passengers and returning the lift to the
main terminal. Nowadays the lunchtime period is often
the most severe traffic condition.

Sometimes the traffic designer specifies too few lifts, or
the architect is unable to provide sufficient space for the
number of lifts required, or the building population
increases and the installed lift system cannot handle the
up-peak traffic demand. Several techniques(2) are available
to improve the up-peak handling capacity of an instal -
lation, which are sometimes called up-peak ‘boosters’. The
main techniques available are up-peak subzoning, up-peak
sectoring and hall call allocation (destination control) and
these are available from many manufacturers. Discussions
should be carried out with the manufacturers at the design
stage in order to determine the most suitable type for a
particular installation.

9.7.2 Up-peak boosting by subzoning

In subzoning systems, the building zone is divided into
two subzones and the lift group is divided into two
subgroups for the duration of the up-peak period. The cars
are permanently allocated to a subzone and passengers are
directed to the subgroup which serves their floor by
illuminated signs. The subzones may not contain equal
numbers of floors, nor may equal numbers of lifts serve
each subzone, see Figure 9.7. The technique works well
with at least six lifts in the group and is available from a
number of lift manufacturers.

9.7.3 Up-peak boosting by sectoring

Up-peak subzoning can be extended by dividing the
building into more than two sectors to provide an up-peak
sectoring traffic control system(11). The number of sectors
can be made equal to (or slightly less than) the number of
lifts. Each sector generally contains the same number of
floors, except the highest may have less floors and the
lowest may have more floors. The number of floors in each
sector is small, e.g. 3/4/5, and consequently the round trip
time is reduced and the handling capacity increased. An

Page 357

Index Terms Links

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

underground stations 5–5

university buildings see education buildings


accessibility improvements 16–8 to 16–9

commissioning after 15–3

factors influencing 16–2

legislation, standards and codes of practice 16–1 16–2 to 16–3

life cycle considerations 16–1

protection from vandalism 16–9 to 16–10

size constraints 7–6 7–11

traffic control improvement

simulation 4–12

verification case study 9–13 to 9–14

undertaking modifications 16–3 16–5 16–10 to 16–11

16–12 to 16–18

up-peak boosters 9–10 to 9–11

up-peak handling capacity (UPPHC) 3–3 3–4 3–8


up-peak interval (UPPINT) 3–3 3–4 4–17

up-peak round trip time 3–8 to 3–9

up-peak sectoring 9–10 to 9–11

up-peak service 9–8 to 9–9

up-peak subzoning 9–10 9–11


vandal resistant lift features 5–3 to 5–4 16–9 to 16–10

variable voltage drives 8–8 to 8–10

variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF)

drives 8–9 to 8–10 10–7

vehicle lifts 5–21 to 5–23

ventilation (G)

health and safety at work 18–4

lift cars 12–9

lift wells 12–9

machine rooms 12–7 12–8

vertical sliding entrance doors 5–12 5–22 5–23

5–36 7–21

vibration (G) 12–10

‘VIP’ service 9–9

voltage drop 12–2 12–4 to 12–5

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Index Terms Links

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.


WAHR (Work at Height Regulations) 2005 17–6

waiting areas

occupancy levels 2–3

personal space 2–2

see also landing entrances; lobbies

waiting time 3–9 3–12

walking speeds 2–3

moving walks and ramps 2–6

shopping malls 2–8 2–9

stairways 2–4

wall climbers see observation (glass/scenic) lifts

Ward Leonard set 8–8

water protection (firefighting) 6–5 to 6–6

wells (lift) see lift wells

wheelchair access see disabled access


lift car size 5–7 5–28 11–5

lifting platforms 11–2 to 11–3 11–6 11–7

stairlifts 11–9

types 11–3

width 2–4

Work at Height Regulations 2005 (WAHR) 17–6

Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)

Regulations 1992 17–6

Workplace Directive 17–6

workplace safety 17–2 to 17–6 18–1 to 18–4

worm wheels 7–4


zoning 3–14 to 3–15 9–4

dynamic subzoning 9–11

subzoning systems 9–10 9–11 9–12

Similer Documents