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TitleChangeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
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LanguageEnglish
File Size7.7 MB
Total Pages413
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Page 1

Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing

Page 2

Series Editor

Professor D.T. Pham
Intelligent Systems Laboratory
WDA Centre of Enterprise in Manufacturing Engineering
University of Wales Cardiff
PO Box 688
Newport Road
Cardiff
CF2 3ET
UK

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Page 206

Reconfiguring Process Plans: A New Approach to Minimize Change 189

Table 10.1 Sample assembly operations details of the original electric kettle

Assembly Operation ID Operation Description Setup Used

1 Put main body (Part #6) Vertical, Upright
2 Fix water indicator (Part #7) Vertical, Upright
6 Insert steam tube (Part #15) Vertical, Upright
7 Insert steam separator (Part #3) Vertical, Upright
8 Fix screw (Part #2) Vertical, Upright

16 Insert controller (Part #19) Body lower Setup
17 Insert heating plate (Part #10) Body lower Setup
18 Insert heating O’Ring (Part #21) Body lower Setup

where it would be upside down), and a third setup to assemble the Body Lower
sub-assembly.

Two iterations were carried out to insert the two new operations as highlighted
in the OPG of the new product variant given in Fig. 10.2. In Tables 10.2 and 10.3,
setup and tool change formulation matrices and vectors for the second iteration are
given respectively. The precedence cost matrix is a sparse matrix, where elements
c(1,4), c(2,4), c(3,4), c(4,4), c(21,20) and c(22,20) are assigned a relatively large
penalty of a 1000 time units. Manual assembly is performed and hence, the tool
change component in the handling time objective function is absent in this case,
hence, all tool change vectors are zero vectors.

The given plan for the original variant of Kettle is {15, 16, 17, 18, 1, 10, 11, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 12, 13, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24}. Missing assembly operations
in the new kettle (variant 2) were subtracted resulting in the following sequence
{15, 16, 17, 18, 1, 10, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 12, 13, 14, 2, 19, 24}. Results of each
iterative step of the RPP solution method are given in Table 10.4, where the new
inserted operations are highlighted in bold face. The value of the objective function
is 2 time units corresponding to 2 acts of re-fixturing. It should be noted that each
act of re-fixturing is assumed to take an arbitrary time period of one unit time in this
case study, since only re-fixturing of the work piece is considered.

This case study demonstrated the strength of the proposed approach. Only those
design changes that cause logical/precedence changes on the product level, make
a difference on a process planning level. For example, although the design of the
Body Lower Sub-assembly is changed in the new product variant, its assembly is
considered the same from planning perspective, since logically, the precedences are
the same; both operations attach the lower sub-assembly into the main body regard-
less of the DFA enhancements in that lower assembly. On the other hand, some other
operations in the original assembly and its corresponding ones in the modified one

Table 10.2 Old work piece repositioning time vector, S, for the second iteration

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Page 207

190 A. Azab, H. ElMaraghy and S.N. Samy

Table 10.3 Work piece repositioning time matrix C for the second iteration

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

Table 10.4 Solution iterations

Before Iteration 1 {15, 16, 17, 18, 1, 10, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 12, 13, 14, 2, 19, 24}
Before Iteration 2 {15, 16, 17, 25, 18, 1, 10, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 12, 13, 14, 2, 19, 24}
Final Sequence {15, 16, 17, 25, 18, 26, 1, 10, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 12, 13, 14, 2, 19, 24}

produced different logical precedence relationships; hence, in spite of them being
technically identical they are considered different entities at the operations macro-
planning level. The value of RIplan is zero indicating the absence of any additional
handling tasks (work piece re-fixturing) for the new product variant, hence, zero
added assembly setups or workstations.

10.7.2 Reconfigurable Process Planning for Machining
of a Front Engine Cover Part Family

An engine front cover family of parts is used in this example. The cover belongs
to an aluminum single-cylinder, air-cooled engine with overhead valves. The alu-
minum front cover, shown in Fig. 10.3, is die cast to the near net shape; finish ma-
chining is required for precision features and the tapped holes. Two variants of the

Page 412

404 Index

Control 11, 14, 19, 71, 83, 85, 88, 90�92, 96,
99, 147, 152, 159, 160, 197, 199, 206,
213, 216, 234, 235, 271, 294, 339, 341,
360, 362

Convertability 325, 327
Customization 4, 16, 25, 30, 31, 33, 43, 48,

49, 179, 180, 214, 268, 373

D

Decision Theory 47, 337
Design 35, 51, 52, 60�63, 109, 116, 147,

152, 157, 187, 200, 201, 213, 215,
267�269, 271, 273, 274, 276�280, 346,
389, 391�393, 395

Design Field 389
Design Synthesis 267
Differentiation 4, 25, 30, 31, 33, 37, 38, 43
Dynamics 147, 230

E

Economic Justi�cation 303
Enablers 3, 4, 9, 14, 16�19, 22, 25�27, 44,

54, 197, 202�204, 216, 228, 272, 273,
276, 280, 356

Equipment 7, 111, 304, 374
Evolution 7, 33, 34, 278
Evolving Family 25, 32, 275
Evolving Part 26
Evolving Parts 32, 34, 43, 181
Evolving Parts and Products Families 26

F

Family 7, 13, 25�27, 29�40, 43, 48, 49, 56,
64, 117, 179, 183, 187, 190, 274, 275,
280, 290

Feature 12, 50, 90, 105, 113, 117, 184�187,
203, 218, 222, 227, 229, 243, 323, 364,
365, 378

Field-bus Systems 71
Flexibility 13, 14, 47�55, 57, 60�63, 101,

111, 113, 269, 355
Focused Flexibility Manufacturing Systems

(FFMSs) 47, 49
Framework 8, 36, 50, 51, 54, 95, 182, 197�

199, 201, 210, 213, 215, 216, 219, 220,
228, 244, 267�271, 273, 274, 277�280,
321, 323, 328�330, 333, 334, 338, 349

Functionality 52, 53, 57, 60, 63
Fuzzy Logic 183, 338�342, 345, 346, 348,

349, 357

G

Granularity 18
Group 29, 32, 36, 85, 274
Group Technology 275

H

Hard- and Software Interface 71
Hierarchy 26, 27, 43, 305, 345

I

Industrial Robot 147, 149
Integrability 16, 17, 214
Intelligent Automation 355
Intelligent Manufacturing System 337, 340,

350

L

Laser 72, 73, 87, 99, 114, 362
Logistic 6, 13, 26, 197, 230, 285, 390

M

Machining Center 101, 295
Maintainability 321, 330, 333
Maintenance 81, 102, 122, 321, 323�326,

330�334, 337�341, 344�350, 361, 384,
386

Maintenance Strategies 337
Manual Assembly 189
Manufacturing Planning 213
Manufacturing System Design 47, 279
Manufacturing System 4, 6, 13, 14, 16, 17,

25�27, 30�35, 37, 38, 40, 42�44, 48�51,
63, 71, 72, 74, 95, 109, 112, 192, 213,
214, 216, 218, 228, 230, 231, 267�270,
274, 276, 279, 285, 291, 303�305, 318,
319, 337, 338, 356�358, 361, 368, 385,
391

Mathematical Programming 40, 179
Mechatronic Components 71, 94
Metal Cutting, Assembly 179
Metrics 22, 25, 53, 315, 323
Migration 373, 375�378, 380, 382�386
Mobility 17, 18, 53
Modular Design 71, 80, 267, 273, 275
Modularity 9, 16, 17, 22, 29, 30, 32, 75, 116,

214, 273�275, 280, 325�327, 376
Multi-criteria Decision Making 303

Page 413

Index 405

N

Neutrality 19
Niche Products 31
Niche Vehicles 373

O

Object Oriented MPC System 213
Ontology 47, 51, 54, 55, 60, 62
Ontology on Flexibility 47, 51, 54, 55, 60, 62

P

Platform 30, 31, 83�86, 88, 89, 99, 102, 116,
158, 270, 274, 279, 292, 375�377, 385

Portfolio 12, 13, 15, 31, 391
(PPC) Production Planning and Control

197�199, 229
Precedence 36, 37, 39�42, 182, 184�186,

189, 190
Process Planning 11, 18, 32, 33, 37, 38,

40�42, 179, 183, 184, 186, 190, 193, 216,
275, 285, 364

Process Plans 11, 18, 25�27, 30, 34, 37�44,
179�181, 183, 186, 192, 193, 275, 285,
304, 327, 331, 364, 367

Product Evolution 26, 34, 179
Product Families 26, 27, 30, 32, 34, 43, 181
Production Planning 11, 19, 52, 57, 60, 63,

197, 199, 216, 219

Q

Quality 19, 321�323, 325, 326, 328,
331�334

R

Real Options 63, 373
Recon�gurability 13�15, 26, 49, 51, 72, 75,

109, 268, 272, 273, 275, 276, 279, 305
Recon�gurable Machine Tool 80, 111, 191,

273
Recon�gurable Manufacturing Systems 49,

63, 111, 115, 181, 214, 304, 321, 334,
356, 385

Recon�gurable Modules 147
Recon�gurable Robots and Machine Tools

71
Recon�guration 40, 96, 97, 101, 186, 191,

285�287, 289, 303, 307, 312, 314, 315
Recon�guration Management 285, 289
Recon�guring Process Plans 25, 26, 40, 41,

43, 179
Reliability 308, 321
Responsiveness 240, 303, 310, 315, 316
Robot 147

S

Scalability 9, 16, 22, 48, 102, 214, 216, 218,
221, 229�231, 233, 234, 237, 238, 241,
243, 244, 272, 274, 280, 305, 325, 327,
349, 376, 382

Self Adapting Control System 71
Self-adaptable 91, 93
Species 33, 34, 64, 278, 279
Supply Chain 12, 32, 37, 180, 183, 199, 230,

270, 279, 384
Sustainability 390, 398
Synergetic Factory Planning 398
Synthesis 267, 268

T

Transformability 13, 15, 19, 21, 272,
398�400

Transformable Factory 273, 391, 399, 400
Turbulence 50, 58, 197, 391

U

Uncertainty 227, 228
Universality 17

V

Variability 36, 62, 234, 237, 327, 333
Variant 39, 181, 187�190, 367, 375, 386
Variation 4, 25�27, 29�33, 37�39, 41, 43, 44,

214, 230, 237, 240, 303

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