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TitleBright Light Therapy for the Treatment of Night Eating Syndrome
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At the baseline assessment, all participants were provided with a written consent form, given

explanation of study in detail, and had the opportunity to ask questions. After providing

informed consent, participants began the baseline assessments.

Pre-Treatment Assessment Procedures

First, all participants were screened with Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of

Axis I Mental Disorders (SCID I) modules to confirm they do not have an active full threshold

axis I diagnosis. Next, participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the NESHI, the

NESS, the BDI, the MEQ, and the ISI. Height and weight were measured and BMI was

calculated. Please see Table 3 for a schedule of assessment administration.

Once baseline assessments were completed, participants were given instructions on how to

use the light for therapy. They were instructed to use the light for 60 minutes each day for 14-

days and were sent home with the light box. In order to ensure each participant was consistent

with their light therapy, they were asked to phone, text message, or email the researcher each day

when they completed their treatment each day. They were also be asked to keep a daily log of

their sleep and wake times, food intake, and to provide mood and anxiety ratings.

Anticipated time for baseline testing was approximately 2 hours and took place in the

laboratory of Dr. Jennifer Lundgren.

Post-Treatment Assessment Procedures

Upon completion of 14-days of light therapy, each participant was asked to return to the

lab in order to return the light box and to complete the following post-treatment questionnaires:

NESS, BDI, and ISI. They were asked to return the light box and daily food/mood records at

their final appointment. Weight was also assessed at the end of treatment.

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Table 3

Assessments Used at Pre-and Post-Treatment

Pre-Treatment Post-Treatment
Baseline SCID X
Height X
Weight X X
Primary Outcomes NESS X X
Secondary Outcomes BDI X X


Program Completion

Program completion was defined as both (a) administering light therapy at least 8 of14

sessions, and (b) completing at least 4 light therapy sessions each of the 2-weeks of the treatment

duration (Lundgren, O’Neil, Martin, & Binks, 2005). Thus, participants who completed 8/14

bright light therapy sessions, of which at least 4 occurred each week, were considered

completers. Measures of adherence were based on the daily contact between the researcher and

the participant either via phone message, text message, or email. This took place according to

the participants’ communication preference. Participants were required to make contact with the

researcher by 10:00 am each day in order to ensure the therapy occurred close to the

recommended time. If more than one day had passed without participant contact, the researcher

contacted the participant.

Barriers to Recruitment and Intervention

It was difficult to recruit individuals with night eating behavior due to the low occurrence

of night eating behaviors in the general population. NES has been reported in 1.5%, 1.6% and

5.7% of the general population (Rand et al., 1997; Colles et al., 2007; Streigel-Moore, 2006),

which is a relatively small percentage. The low occurrence of NES is also why inclusion criteria

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