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TitleBrief of Requirements of the Broiler - E-depot - Wageningen UR
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Colophon
Preface
Samenvatting
Summary
Table of contents
1 Introduction
2 Design of the Brief of Requirements for Broilers
	2.1 Current Problems in Broiler Husbandry
	2.2 Formulating the Brief of Requirements
3 Needs and Requirements of Broilers
	3.1 Behavioural Needs
		3.1.1 Foraging and Exploration
		3.1.2 Rest and Sleep
		3.1.3 Sun Bath
		3.1.4 Preen
		3.1.5 Dust Bath
		3.1.6 Wing and Leg Stretch
		3.1.7 Social Interaction and Play
	3.2 Health Related Needs
		3.2.1  Aerial Environment
		3.2.2 Thermal Environment
		3.2.3 Microbial Environment
		3.2.4 Spatial Environment
	3.3 Nutritional Needs
4 Discussion and Conclusion
Literature
Appendices
	Appendix I: Glossary
	Appendix II: Overview of Broiler Strains Found in Literature
	Appendix III: Keywords for Literature Search
	Appendix IV: Expert Opinion Survey
	Appendix V & VI: Definitions and categories used in the Brief of Requirements of the Broiler
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Wageningen UR Livestock Research
Partner in livestock innovations

Report 517

October 2011

Broilers with taste/ Pluimvee met smaak

Brief of Requirements of the Broiler

Page 2

Colophon


Publisher

Wageningen UR Livestock Research
P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad

Telephone +31 320 - 238238
Fax +31 320 - 238050

E-mail [email protected]
Internet http://www.livestockresearch.wur.nl


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Copyright
© Wageningen UR Livestock Research, part of

Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (DLO
Foundation), 2011

Reproduction of contents, either whole or in part,
permitted with due reference to the source.


Liability

Wageningen UR Livestock Research does not
accept any liability for damages, if any, arising from

the use of the results of this study or the
application of the recommendations.


Wageningen UR Livestock Research and Central

Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, both part of
Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (DLO

Foundation), together with the Department of
Animal Sciences of Wageningen University
comprises the Animal Sciences Group of

Wageningen UR (University & Research centre).

Single numbers can be obtained from the website.

Abstract
This report lists the brief of requirements of the
broiler, based on her needs (also listed). The
BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to
the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main
actors are incorporated in the redesign
of a broiler husbandry system in the
project Tasteful Broilers.

Keywords
Animal welfare, broiler, brief of requirements,
needs, design

Reference
ISSN 1570 - 8616

Author(s)
Cindy Hoeks
Eddie Bokkers
Bram Bos
Ingrid de Jong
Arni Janssen
Peter Groot Koerkamp

Title
Brief of Requirements of the Broiler

Report 517


ISO 9001 certification by DNV emphasizes our
quality level. All our research projects are
subject to the General Conditions of the
Animal Sciences Group, which have been filed
with the District Court Zwolle.

Page 30

Report 517

18

Wickens, C.L., Heleski, C.R., 2010. Crib-biting behavior in horses: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour
Science 128, 1-9.


Yalcin, S., Özkan, S., Türkmut, L., Siegel, P.B., 2001. Responses to heat stress in commercial and

local broiler stocks. 1. Performance traits. British Poultry Science 42, 149 - 152.

Young, I., Raji, A., Wilhelm, B.J., Waddell, L., Parker, S., McEwen, S.A., 2009. Comparison of the

prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens, potentially zoonotic bacteria and bacterial resistance
to antimicrobials in organic and conventional poultry, swine and beef production: a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology and Infection 137, 1217-1232.


Zimmerman, P.H., Pope, S.J., Guilford, T., Nicol, C.J., 2009. Involvement of the sun and the magnetic

compass of domestic fowl in its spatial orientation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116,
204-210.


Grey Literature:

ASG, 2004. Handboek pluimveehouderij. Hoekstra de kleurrijke drukker, Emmeloord.

ASG, 2010. Effect van bezettingsdichtheid op het gedrag van jonge vleeskuikens, Wageningen UR

Livestock Research.

Cornelissen, J.M.R., Ursinus, W.W., Schepers, F., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Van Dixhoorn, I.D.E.,

2009. Brief of Requirements of the Dairy Cow. Report 264, Wageningen UR Livestock
Research.


De Mol, R.M., Schouten, W.G.P., Evers, E., Drost, W.C., Houwers, H.W.J., Smits, A.C., 2004.

Integrale Welzijnsbeoordeling Leghennen, Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B.V.,
Wageningen, pp. 1-64.


European Commission, 2000. The Welfare of Chickens Kept for Meat Production (Broilers), In:

Welfare, T.S.C.o.A.H.a.A. (Ed.), European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection
Directorate-General.


NRC, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Projectgroep Houden van Hennen, 2004. Programma van Eisen - Op basis van de behoeften van

pluimveehouder, leghen en burger. Rapportnummer ASG 04/0006786; Wageningen UR.

Welfare Quality, 2009. Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for poultry (broilers, laying hens),

Welfare Quality consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands.

Extension Advice:

Aviagen 2007a. Arbor Acres Plus broiler performance objectives

Aviagen 2007b. Lohmann Meat broiler stock performance objectives

Ross 2007. Ross 308 broilers performance objectives

Cobb-Vantress 2010. Cobb Sasso 150

Page 58

Appendix VI: Brief of Requirements of the Broiler 46

Code Specification
of Need

Requirement Life
Stage

Quantification fast Quantification medium Quantification slow Explanation

FE127 B5 (pantothenic acid) 0-3 wks 10 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE128 3-6 wks 10 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE129 6-8 wks 10 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE130 B6 (pyridoxine) 0-3 wks 3.5 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994)

FE131 3-6 wks 3.5 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994)

FE132 6-8 wks 3.0 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE133 B2 (riboflavin) 0-3 wks 3.6 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994)

FE134 3-6 wks 3.6 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994)

FE135 6-8 wks 3.0 mg per kg diet (NRC, 1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE136 B1 (thiamin) 0-3 wks 1.80 mg per kg diet (NRC,1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE137 3-6 wks 1.80 mg per kg diet (NRC,1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE138 6-8 wks 1.80 mg per kg diet (NRC,1994) Estimate based on values obtained for other ages or related species (NRC, 1994).

FE139 B3 (nicotinic acid) all Essential dietary component (Animal Sciences Group, 2004) but recommended dietary values were not
found.

FE140 Folic acid all Essential dietary component (Animal Sciences Group, 2004) but recommended dietary values were not
found.

FE141 Ascorbic acid all Essential dietary component (Animal Sciences Group, 2004) but recommended dietary values were not
found.

FE142 Development
of digestive
system

Provision of sturdy
particles

AB Small sturdy particles are taken
up to aid in development of
gizzard

Small sturdy particles are
taken up to aid in development
of gizzard

Small sturdy particles are
taken up to aid in
development of gizzard

Chickens ingest small-sized grit to aid in digestion of whole grains; this is however not necessary to
digest pelleted feed (European Commission, 2000). Quantification of the amount of inedible particles
necessary to ingest for full development of the gizzard was not found.

FE143 Dietary fiber all 3 - 10 % insoluble fibers in diet
(Hetland et al., 2004)

3 - 10 % insoluble fibers in
diet (Hetland et al., 2004)

3 - 10 % insoluble fibers
in diet (Hetland et al.,
2004)

Soluble fiber fraction can retain water, leading to high viscosity in small intestine which inhibits digestion
and decreases rate of passage. Digestion of soluble fibers affects intestinal microbiota. Insoluble fiber
fraction is not digested and has no effect on intestinal microbiota, but can lead to increase of bulk in
digestive tract, leading to expansion of intestinal components or increased passage rate. Moderate (3 - 10
%) addition of insoluble fibers to diets can improve nutrient digestion. Furthermore the size of the gizzard
is positively correlated with amount of insoluble dietary fibers present in the diet (Hetland et al., 2004).

FE144 Large feed particles all Development of gizzard is influenced by particle size of food ingested early in life. When fed non-pelleted
feedstuff the relative size of the gizzard is positively correlated with feed particle size (Amerah et al.,
2007a). Furthermore larger feed particles stimulate development of the gizzard and gastric functions (e.g.
secretion of digestive enzymes), in contrast to finely ground feed that easily passes through the gizzard.
Enhancement of gastric functions is beneficial for preventing intestinal colonisation by feed-borne
pathogens (Engberg et al., 2002). Diet of finely ground feed results in decrease of relative (i.e. in relation
to body weight) overall length of digestive tract compared to diet containing large particles (Amerah et
al., 2007b). Ideal feed particle size for development of digestive system of broilers was not found.

FE145 Availability of
water

Fresh water all Drinking water should be fresh and of good quality, provided in clean drinking devices (ASG, 2004).

FE146 Sufficient water supply all Drinking is done directly after
feeding (Siegel et al., 1997)

Drinking is done directly after
feeding (Siegel et al., 1997)

Drinking is done directly
after feeding (Siegel et al.,
1997)

Quantification of the amount of water consumed by broilers was not found, however water should always
be supplied abundantly to prevent dehydration.

Page 59

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