Download Breast MRI in Practice - R. Warren, A. Coulthard (Martin Dunitz, 2002) WW PDF

TitleBreast MRI in Practice - R. Warren, A. Coulthard (Martin Dunitz, 2002) WW
File Size18.6 MB
Total Pages280
Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Physical basis of magnetic resonance imaging
Equipment requirements
Breast MRI protocols
Contrast agent dynamics in breast MRI
Radiographic aspects of breast MRI
Reporting of the breast MRI examination
Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal breast
Benign breast disease
Primary breast cancer
The axilla
Treatment-induced changes
Detection of disease recurrence
Monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy
The augmented and reconstructed breast
Localization of lesions with breast MRI
Problem-solving with breast MRI
Breast MRI and screening
A surgical perspective of breast MRI
Psychological aspects of MRI
Cost-effectiveness of breast MRI
Future development in breast MRI
Document Text Contents
Page 2



Page 140

Section III

The Operated Breast

Page 279

Silicone, properties, 161
Silicone suppression, 14–15, 161
Simultaneous acquisition of spatial harmonics

(SMASH), 25
Single lumen devices, augmented breast, 162
Single photon emission computed tomography

(SPECT), 231–3

normal breast, 78
treated breast, 135

Slice selection, 37–9
image formation process, 9–11

Slice thickness/separation, 34
quality assurance, 26–7

Slow dynamic techniques, 50
pulse sequence timing, 49

SMASH see Simultaneous acquisition of spatial

Snapshot-FLASH, 16–17
SNR see Signal-to-noise ratio
Solid masses, implants, 167
Sources of data, trials and modelling, 253
Spatial linearity, quality assurance, 26–7
Spatial resolution

quality assurance, 26–7
sequence protocols, 39

Specificity, pulse sequence timing, 49
SPECT see Single photon emission computed

Spin echo body coil image, 136
Spin-echo-type sequences, 35–6
Spin-echoes, RF see RF Spin-echoes
Spin-lattice relaxation time, 6–7
Spin-spin relaxation time, tissue parameter, 30–1
Spins, nuclear, 5

axillary staging, 120–3
preoperative, 240–1

Staging recommendations, primary breast cancer,
112–13, 120–3

Static 3D MR techniques, 50
Stereotactic core biopsy, localization, lesions, 179
STIR see Short tau inversion recovery sequence
Subpectoral implants, imaging, 169
Subtraction contrast-enhance MRI, 157
Subtraction, pitfall, 189
Superconducting magnets, 20
Superior features, MRI, 177
Support, patient, 249

axilla, 131
benign cause of enhancement, 81
post-surgical breast, 145–8
treatment-induced changes, 131–2

Surgical perspective, 237–45
interventional breast MRI, 243
potential clinical indications, 237–43

Surgical staging, axilla, 121
Surgically treated breast, detection of tumour

recurrence, 139–41
Susceptibility artefacts, 41
Susceptibility effect, 8
Synopsis, this book, 1–2

T1 imaging, cf. T2 imaging, 43–4
T1/T2 relaxation time, tissue parameter, 30–1
T1-weighted 2D gradient recalled echo image, 132
T1-weighted 2D spoiled gradient recalled echo

image, 132
T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences, 134,

axilla, 120, 121, 125

T1-weighted gradient-echo GRE oblique sagittal
image pre-Gd, 122, 124

T1-weighted MR imaging, 45–8
benign breast disease, 82–3
normal breast, 73–4, 78
primary breast cancer, 100–1
signal enhancement, 45–8

T2 imaging, cf. T1 imaging, 43–4
T2-weighted fast spin-echo image, 132
T2-weighted MR imaging, 44–5

axilla, 120
clinical utility of T2 imaging, 44–5
normal breast, 73–4, 77
quantification of T2 phenomena, 44

Tamoxifen, 228, 243
TE see Echo time
Technique, breast MRI, 3–69
Technology, future developments, 257–9
Temporal resolution, sequence protocols, 39
Test objects, quality assurance, 26–8
Three dimensional imaging see 3-dimensional

Time/intensity curves see Signal intensity-time curve
Time preference, cost-effectiveness, 255–6
Tiny lesions, mammography and, 199–203
Tissue characterization, future developments, 257
Tissue contrast, 12–14
Tissue flap techniques, reconstruction, 168
Tissue parameters, 29–33

chemical shift, 31
functional parameters, 32–3
magnetic susceptibility, 31–2
magnetization transfer, 32
protocols, 29–33
proton density, 29–30
T1/T2 relaxation time, 30–1


Page 280

Tissues, proton T1 relaxation times, 6–8
TP53 gene mutation, 227, 228, 230–1, 234
TR see Repetition time
Trabecular distortion, 84
Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM)

flap, 168, 169–70
Transverse relaxation time, tissue parameter, 30–1
Treatment-induced changes, 131–7

radiotherapy, 132–5
surgery, 131–2, 133

Truncation artefacts, 41
Tumour response, assessing, 155–8
Two dimensional imaging see 2-dimensional imaging

UICC see Union Internationale Contre le Cancer

Ultrasmall particulate iron oxide (USPIO) contrast,
axilla, 119–20

axilla, 119–20, 121
diagnosis of tumour recurrence, 139–51

localization, lesions, 177–8
tiny lesions, 199–203
tumour response, 156

Unenhanced MRI, normal breast MRI, 73–4
Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC)

criteria, 155, 241–2
USPIO see Ultrasmall particulate iron oxide contrast

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), 45
DCIS, 110

Vascular structures, normal breast MRI, 78–9
Vasodilation, and oestrogens, 75
VEGF see Vascular endothelial growth factor

White matter, proton T1 relaxation times, 7–8
Wire localization, localization, lesions, 179
Wraparound artefacts, 41, 189

Y-gradient coils, 23–4

Z-gradient coils, 23–4


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