Download BMW Suspension Systems PDF

TitleBMW Suspension Systems
File Size2.0 MB
Total Pages72
Table of Contents
                            01_Introduction to Chassis Dynamics
02_Basic Suspension Geometry
03_BMW Suspension Systems
04_TPMS Wheels and Tires
05_Longitudinal Dynamics_X Axis
06_Lateral Dynamics_Y Axis
07_Vertyical Dynamics_Z Axis
08_Wheel Alignment
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Technical Training

Chassis Dynamics

Reference Manual
The Ultimate

Driving Machine®

BMW of North America, LLC
Technical Training


Page 2

Information Status: August 01, 2012

Course Code: ST1115 Chassis Dynamics

The information contained in the training course materials is solely intended for partici-
pants in this training course conducted by BMW Group Technical Training Centers, or
BMW Group Contract Training Facilities.

This training manual or any attached publication is not intended to be a complete and all
inclusive source for repair and maintenance data. It is only part of a training information
system designed to assure that uniform procedures and information are presented to all

For changes/additions to the technical data, repair procedures, please refer to the current
information issued by BMW of North America, LLC, Technical Service Department.

This information is available by accessing TIS at

© 2012 BMW of North America, LLC. The BMW name and logo are registered trademarks. All rights reserved.

Page 36

BMW Suspension Systems

As requirements for improved performance continue to increase, rear axle technology
must also be continually enhanced. Throughout the development of various BMW
Group vehicles, the rear axle has continually evolved to meet the overall needs of
chassis design.
Throughout the various design changes, rear axles have allowed improvements in
traction and stability. The rear axles have also been “weight optimized” which allows
for an overall balanced chassis.
The rear axle designs have also made it possible to decrease changes in rear camber
and toe during suspension travel. By limiting camber and toe changes, the tire can
maintain a better contact patch, thereby improving rear end stability and improved
tire wear.

Some of the other improvements to rear axle design include the complete isolation of
the rear axle through rubber bushings. This decreases the incidence of the transmission
of road noise into the vehicle’s body and provides superior ride smoothness.
The chart on the next page list the various rear axle designs on BMW vehicles through
the last few decades of production vehicles.

Rear Suspension History

E65/E66 Rear Axle (Integral IV)
Shown with ARS and Rear Air Suspension.

Page 37

BMW Suspension Systems

Development of BMW Rear Axles

Rear Axle Designation Rear Axle Features Models

HA 1 Semi-trailing arm axle E12, E21, E28, E30, E36/5, E36/7

HA 2 Semi-trailing arm axle (with track-link) E23, E24, E32 and E34

HA 3 Central “C” link rear axle E36 (Except E36/5 and E36/7), E46, E83, E85 and E89

HA 4 Design Study Not used in production vehicles N/A

HA 5 5-link rear axle (Dispersed double control arm axle)
E90 (E91, E92)
E82, E88, E84
F25, F30

Integral I Design Study Not used in production vehicles N/A

Integral II Design Study Not used in production vehicles N/A

Integral III 5-link rear axle. Integral design withmulti-link. E31

Integral IV Steel carrier, with spring on damper E38

Integral IV Aluminum carrier, spring on body,damper on axle carrier. E39

Integral IV Aluminum carrier E39/2 (Touring)

Integral IV
Steel axle carrier, aluminum link with
steel wheel carrier, spring and damper
separated, but still supported on body.


Integral IV Aluminum axle carrier, spring anddamper on wheel carrier. E65/E66

Integral IV Aluminum axle carrier, spring anddamper on wheel carrier.

(E60, 61, 63 and 64)

Integral V
Aluminum axle carrier, used with con-
ventional or air springs and spring
struts depending on the vehicle.

E70 ( E71, E72)
F0x (F01, F02, F07, F10, F12,


Bold = Current Models

Page 71

BMW Suspension Systems

Suspension Options (Integral V)
The standard chassis and suspension system of the F01 features steel springs on
the front and rear axle. The standard chassis and suspension on F02 and F07 has
steel springs on the front axle with the single axle air suspension (EHC) fitted on the
rear axle. The F01/F02, is equipped as standard with vertical dynamics control
featuring electronically.

Index Explanation Index Explanation

1 Thrust strut 8 Air spring
2 Shock absorber 9 Track link
3 Upper wishbone 10 Rear axle support mount
4 Integral link 11 Rear axle support
5 Wheel carrier 12 Rear axle slip angle control actuator
6 Wheel bearing 13 Air supply system (LVA)
7 Swinging arm

F07 Rear Axle with Single Axle Air Suspension (EHC).

Page 72

Depending on the vehicle and optional equipment the following combinations
are available:

• Standard suspension with single axle air spring.
• Dynamic drive with steel springs and VDC dampers.
• Dynamic drive with 2 steel springs and single axle air spring and VDC dampers.

Beginning with the F10 however conventional spring struts on the front and rear axles
are installed as standard equipment with EDC/VDC dampers available as an option.
This configuration is also installed in the F12 and F13 6 Series models.

BMW Suspension Systems

Index Explanation Index Explanation

1 Thrust strut 7 Swinging arm

2 Spring strut 8 Air spring Track link

3 Upper wishbone 9 Rubber mount for rear axle

4 Integral link 10 Rear suspension subframe

5 Wheel carrier 11 HSR actuator

6 Wheel bearing

F10 Rear Axle with Spring Struts.

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