Download Biophotonics (Bio. and Med. Physics, Biomed Eng.) - L. Pavesi, P. Fauchet (Springer, 2008) WW PDF

TitleBiophotonics (Bio. and Med. Physics, Biomed Eng.) - L. Pavesi, P. Fauchet (Springer, 2008) WW
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Total Pages349
Table of Contents
Document Text Contents
Page 2

biological and medical physics,
biomedical engineering

Page 174

9 Coherent Laser Measurement Techniques for Medical Diagnostics 155

Fig. 9.2. Evaluation of spatial phase-shifted interferograms. (a),(b) Spatial phase-
shifted interferograms I, I ′ of two displacement states of a tilted metal plate; (c),(d)
Phase distributions φ, φ′ (mod 2π) calculated by (9.5) from (a) and (b); (e) Cor-
relation fringe pattern calculated by (9.3); (f),(g) Raw and �ltered phase di�erence
distribution mod 2π obtained by subtraction of (c) and (d) modulo 2π; (h),(i) Un-
wrapped phase di�erence and corresponding pseudo 3D representation of �φ

Page 175

156 B. Kemper and G. von Bally

9.3 Endoscopic Electronic Speckle Pattern
Interferometry (ESPI)

Endoscopy is a wide spread intracavity observation technique routinely used in
minimal invasive diagnostics and industrial intracavity inspection. The com-
bination of endoscopic imaging with speckle interferometric metrology allows
the development of tools for a nondestructive quantitative detection of defects
within body cavities, including the analysis of shape, structure, displacements,
and vibrations of the object. In this way Electronic-Speckle-Pattern Interfer-
ometry (ESPI) opens up new perspectives for biomedical applications, espe-
cially in minimally invasive diagnostics in the medical field [18]. Contrary to
earlier attempts in holographic endoscopy where single interferograms with
Q-switched lasers were recorded [19], an on-line process analysis can be per-
formed with a rate near video repetition frequency. This can be achieved by
endoscopic ESPI systems with an external (proximal) interferometric arrange-
ment using standard endoscope optics [4,20] or by an arrangement where the
ESPI system is positioned in the endoscope tip [21] (distal arrangement).
Such endoscope ESPI systems open up the possibility to replace the opera-
tor’s tactile sense, which is lost in endoscopic surgery, by visual information
(“endoscopic taction”) [4, 5, 22].

9.3.1 Proximal Endoscopic ESPI

The setup for proximal endoscopic ESPI with the speckle interferometer po-
sitioned outside the cavity is illustrated in Fig. 9.3. The advantage of such

Fig. 9.3. Arrangement for proximal endoscopic ESPI. CCD CCD sensor, AOM
acousto-optic modulator, DG double pulse generator, BV/PC digital image process-
ing system

Page 348


1D photonic crystal, 103
2D photonic crystal, 103

Active pixel sensor, 239
Avidin, 200

Biosensor, 107, 199
BSA, 120

Carotenoids, 3, 31, 42
CARS:Coherent anti-Stokes Raman, 48
CCD, 239
Chlorophylls, 3, 29
Chloroplasts, 2

DHM, 164
DHM Life Cell Imaging, 171
DHM numerical focus, 170
DHM resolution, 170
Digital Holographic Microscopy, 164
Digital holographic reconstruction, 166
Distal endoscopic ESPI, 158
DNA, 114
Double exposure subtraction ESPI, 152

E�ective dielectric constant, 110
Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferome-

try, 152
ESPI, 152

Fluorescence, 49
Fluorescent dye molecule, 87
Functionalization, 111

Genetic engineering, 202

Genome, 177
Genomics, 219
Gram bacteria, 114
Greenhouse e�ect, 15

Hydrogenases, 19

IgG, 117

Keratinocytes, 301

Label-free, 88
Label-free optical biosensing, 109
Laser tissue welding, 275
Light cone, 104
Light harvesting complexes, 6

Mach�Zehnder interferometer, 128
Michelson-type interferometer, 128
Microcavity, 94, 105, 110, 111, 121
Microscopic Speckle Interferometry, 161
Multi-photon microscopy, 47
Mutant Type protein, 195

NDRM, 166
Non di�ractive reconstruction, 166

Ophthalmology, 127
Optical tweezers, 249
Optrodes, 204, 207

Phosphorescennce, 49
Photonic bandgap, 105
Photonic crystals, 101
Photosynthesis, 1, 17
Plasmid, 194

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336 Index

Porous silicon, 107
Proteomeics, 219
Proteomics, 221
Proximal endoscopic ESPI, 156

Quantum dots, 178

Second harmonic generation, 48
Sensitivity vector, 153
Setups for DHM, 165
Silanization, 114
Single photon avalanche diode, SPAD,


Singlet oxygen, 30
Spatial phase shifting, 153
SPS, 153
Stable transfection, 194
Streptavidin, 115

Thylakoids, 2, 6
Transfection, 194
Transient transfection, 194
Two-photon cross-section, 58

Vector, 194

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