Download Atomic and Molecular physics PDF

TitleAtomic and Molecular physics
File Size1019.6 KB
Total Pages212
Document Text Contents
Page 1

������� � �
����
� ��������������������������������� � �����������������

�!#"%$'&�()!�*�"+(-,/.102"+3

4�57698;:=<>8;[email protected]<EDGFH5JIGKL)MBN>O 8QPRIS8 OBTHU <V8WFXFH5GY N 5BA OBN 8 M[Z�\ 8 O <>8 M�]�^ 8;< T :_8 U 5 M Pa`bA Ndc 5B: MBN FW8WFXFH5Je T 5BAfD M
g N :%5 M Ph8;AiFjYhDQA M 5lk D ^ 8 OBN DQAi8 U FH5[m=A c 5 M < Non 8 OBN DQAf5 M Y N 5BAC<'KL pqO 8 Mr]ts K5 O A N>O 8 M

u 3#!;v_w%!Xx;y;y;z

{

Page 2

����� &�� "��! � (), 3;0�"�

��� $'w%(-!#, $;,������i0�"+$'w%!;"+v u�� 3#0�.9"%$

� u � �90�� &��9"��!�� (-, 3#02"�

���C$'w+()!#,
� � � 02, v+(ow! #" $'w+"+()&20�v
$ % � � 0�&r(-"+( $ �'� � 02!#"+0)(+*l!#" $," $;,- #. $;" w%(-& � 0��� Hv_w%0)(
{ y � " $'w+"+(0/21�0)� "+02v+02,/w%$'w%(-!#, v
{3�
4�!#"5(X$ � ���i0�"+$'w%!;"+v
{�6 7
8/9�102&2w $Qw%()!;,#& $ � � 0�v
x { * .�"_!;:_0�&Bw%()!;,<�=�i0�"%$Qw%!#"_v

�>��� � � 0�& $;"+()$'w%(-!#,C$ � " 02w5� !��

?9{ u .�"+0 � (@(�(), $;"> A1 0B(X$;"5C/v
?9{ � � $;v_()v�! *bwD� 0E" 0BwD� !��
zWy % u w%!�(�()&�F�, (-w+v
z/x � & $;"+()$'w%(-!#,C$ ��� "+0 $QwD(�0�,Ww�! *Rw5� 0HG<IJ �7!#,

�5�>� � � 0 � !#"_,<�=���i0�,K� 0�(L(X02" u ��� "_!M/9(L(@$Qw%()!;,

z 6 u .�"+0 � (@(�(), $;"> A1 0B(X$;"5C/v
z 6 � � 0B� $;"%$'w+()!#, !N*Rw5� 0H
� 0�&Bw%"+!;, ()& $;,K��4�� & � 0 $;"�" !'w%()!;, v
� z % � � 0H
� 0�&Bw%"+!;, ()&H�Hw%$'w%02v[!N*Rw5� 0HG IJ �7!#,

�O&P
� 02&2w+"+!#,��9� (-, $',�� w5� 0 u ,Ww%(-v> �(,(X0Bw%"> Q.�"+(),9&�(@� � 0

��R u .�"+0 � (@(�(), $;"> A1 0B(X$;"5C/v
� 6 � �9� (-,��=�i0�"+$'w%!#"_v

& � � 0H�7,�� 0B�i0�,K� 0�,Ww�.R$;"_w+()& � 0S" !�� 0 �

��? u .�"+0 � (@(�(), $;"> A1 0B(X$;"5C/v
��? � � � 0 J$;" w%"_0�0H.�"+!���� &2w[$;,K�<� � $'w%02" � 02w+0�"5(�(), $;,Ww%v

x

Page 106

�7, w5� 0 v+(@(,� � 0�w�� ! �V0 � 0�&2w+"+!#, & $'v+0 &�!#, v_(@� 02"+0)� � 0�"_0;G w5� 0
C,C$ � � $��#0)* �9, &2w+()!#, v�$ �@� * $'&2w%!;"�(-,Ww%!t$
v5� $'w%()$ � �q$��#0 * � , &Bw%()!;, $',�� $av>� (), �q$��#0 * � , &Bw%()!;, � � � ()vh.10)�C$�� (-!#" �9! 02vq, !;wh& $;"_"> X!��#0�" (),Ww%! �q$��#0��
* � , &Bw%(-!#, v (), �#! � �H(), 3 (�!#"_0rwD�C$;, w��[email protected] � 0�&Bw%"_!#, vB�

� � 0
C"+v wqwD�9"+0�0=* �9, &2w+()!#, v �C$��#0�wD� 0�v+$ (�0rv5�C$Qw%( $ � * � ,9&2w%(-!#,HGHwD�C$'wq()v2G�� P � J

� J � P G .��9w�0�$;&��

�C$;v $=� ( �f02"+02,/w v>� (), * � , &Bw%(-!#, �
�H(), &20�0 $;&���! *iwD� 02v+0��C$;v�wD�90�v+$ (�0��;$ � � 0q!N* � L � � { Y G �h0�v+$M wD�C$'w
wD�90�v+0�* � , &Bw%()!;, v
*l!#"5( w5� 0 wD� "_0�0�&�!�(,�1!;, 0�,Ww%v ! * $ w+"+(@� � 02w�v w $'w+0;GH( � 0 �kGH$ v w $'w+0 � � (-&�� �C$'v w5� "+020)*l! � �
v5�9(), � 0�3#02, 0�"+$;&) � � � ()vS� 023#0�,90�"%$'&) *l! �@� !�� v=*l"+!�( w5� 0 * $;&2w wD� $'w wD� 0�0�, 02"+3 $'v+v+!H&�()$'w%0)� � (owD�t$
� $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#, � 0B�i0�,��9v�!;, � ���i!#, wD� 0 v>�C$'w+( $ � * � , &Bw%()!;, vB� � � 0 "+0)(@$'(), (-, 3 * � ,9&2w%(-!#, vG$ �L� � $��;0� L � � { Y �'$ � � 02v�! * ��02"+!qG $;,K� v+(),9&�0�wD� 0 Q�C$��;0H�9(��10�"+02,Ww v5�C$'w+( $ � �1!;"_w%(-!#, veG wD�90) "_0B� "_0�v+02,Ww[w5� "+020
� ( �f02"+0�,Wwh, !#,��90�3#02, 0�"+$'w%0[v_w $Qw%0�veG &�$ �@� 0B� MBN A n;U 5B< M <>8;<75 M �
�Vwhv>� !�� � �@.i0 , !;w%0)�Xw5�C$'w wD� 0 w%"_(@� � 02w �Vv_w%$'w%0
v5� $'w%()$ � * � ,9&2w%(-!#,j(-v�$;,Ww%(-v> �(A(�02w+"+(-& � (-w5��v> �(,(X0Bw%"+(-&�v5�9(),<* � , &Bw%(-!#, v�$;,K� w5�C$'wrw5� 0�v_(), 3 � 02w �7v_w%$'w%0
v5� $'w%()$ � * � , &Bw%(-!#, v $;"_0a$ �@� v �(A(�02w+"+()& � (owD� $;,Ww%(-v> �(,(X0Bw%"+(-&rv5�9(), * � , &2w+()!#,9vB�


�(-wD�90�" ! * wD�90 � $;v w�w�� ! * � , &Bw%(-!#, v�&�$;, .10 � v_0B� w%! � 02v+&2"+().i0�wD� 0�3;"+!�� ,K� v_w $Qw%0 ! *a$ w�� ! �
0 � 0�&Bw%"+!;, v Hv_w%0)( � � � (-v�(L*
P)L !#"
J Y (-v
P � L $��- �� "+!#3;0�, � (@C;0 {�� !#"_. (-w%$ � Y G��h0 !#.9w $'(),�wD�90S* $N(X( � ( $'"
3#"_!�� ,����Vv_w%$'w%0 � $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#, *l!;"qwD� 0S� 0 � (@�K( $'w+!�( G ,C$ (�0 � rG

� [ w�
P


P

w [ x � P
J
P


L { Y
P


L x Y+L � � � � � Y L � � {�$ Y

0 / &20B�9w�w5�C$'w�w5� 0�"_0q()vR, !�� $[v5� (-, �q$��#0 * � , &Bw%()!;,,�9"+0�v_0�,WwM�
�Vw ()vR0 $;v w%!�� 0B(�!#, v w%"%$Qw%0 w5�C$'w w5� ()vRv5� (-,
� $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#,�(-v (L(A(X$'w+0�"+()$ � $'v * $'" $;v�0 /K�i0�&Bw $'w+()!#, �'$ � � 02vh!N* v5�9(),�� *l"+0�0 !��i0�"+$'w%!;"+vh$;"+0�&�!#,9&�0�"_, 0B�'�
�O* ��()v $ v>� (),��O*l"+020 !��102"%$'w+!#"2G/(ow%v�0 /9�i0�&2w%$'w%(-!#, �'$ � � 0 *l!#" $ v Hv_w%0)( � 0�v_&�"+(-.10)��.- wD� 0 � $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#,
L � � {�$ Y ()v

s � �M[^s �-w�� w�� �j[ l l w
P


P

w�� w�
P



P

w p � p �

[ l
m P

L { Y
m P


L x Y �
P


L { Y
P


L x Yqp � l w � � � � � w Jx p � L � � {�6 Y

� 2�9v+0 ! *

� � L z�� {�� Y �h0 v+020 w5�C$'w wD� 0 "_()3��Ww �O�C$;,�� (-,Ww%0�3;"%$ � .i0�&2!�(�0�v
{
x
l w � � � � � w J p � [ {x � l � m � p ��P l � m � p � J�
x l � m � p ��P l � m � p � J � l � m � p ��P l � m � p � J � [ {x L { � y � { Y
[ { L � � x;y Y

{ y �

Page 107

� ��� v2GCw5� 0 v5� (-,#* � ,9&2w%(-!#, v�(-,/w+0�3#"+$'w%0�! �9w w%! � , (ow! rG $;,�� w5� 0 0 /9�102&2w%$'w%(-!#,��'$ � � 0�! * � (-v�v+(@(,� �
s � �M[^s
P


L { Y
P


L x Y w�� w�
P


L { Y
P


L x Y � L � � x { Y

�7,tw5� [email protected]&�$;v+0X! *qv Hv_w%0)(Xv � (-w5� (�!#"+0 wD� $;,tw��h!j0 � 0�&Bw%"+!;, v2GR(-w wD� "_, v ! �9w wD�C$'w wD�[email protected]�9(), * � , &2w+()!#,9v
$ � v+!�(-,/w+0�3#"+$'w%0[w%! � , (ow! @0��#02, w5� !�� 3�� !#,90r& $;,9, !;w * $;&Bw%!#" wD� 0rw+!;w $ � 0 � 0�&2w+"+!#,9()& � $��#0 * � , &2w+()!#, (),Ww+!
$ v5�C$Qw%( $ � �C$;" wJ$',�� $ v>� (),#�C$;" wM� �7, v>� &��j$ &�$;v+0 (-w (-v�, 0�&20�v+v+$;"> w+!Gw%$ C;0 wD�90 v>� (),2* � ,9&2w%(-!#, v (),Ww+!
$;&2&�!�� ,Wwh(),�v+0Bw+w%(-, 3H���Xw5� 0�w+!;w $ � �q$��#0 * � , &Bw%()!;,�(),�!#"5�90�"�w%!a!#.9w $'(),�$ v>�C$'w+( $ � � $��#0)* �9, &2w+()!#,�!N*fwD�90
&�!;"+"+02&2w�v �(A(�02w+"> �� �r, &20[w5� ()vh()v �9!#, 0;G (-wh()v $ � � $M v �1!#v_v+(-. � 0 w%!�v_02w �K� $;,�0 /K�9"+0�v_v+(-!#,2*l!#" s � �
� � (-&�� � !H0�v , !'w[(-, �#! � �#0rwD�90 v>� (), * � , &Bw%(-!#, v L v_0�0 � 0�&BwM�
&�� � Y �

� �X�-,A.*� � 0 7 BS. 5 �[email protected] ( 4 �'Be,A.K�
.�� 7 > � �)B 4 �
� � 0 � !��h0�v w 0 / &�(ow%0B� v w $'w+0 ! *�wD� 0��90 � (L��( $'w%!�( (-vr"+0)� "+02v+0�,Ww+0B�tw+! ��02"+!;w5��!#"5� 02"�.- wD�90 &�!#,��


C3��9"%$'w+()!#, {�� x � �2�7, � 02&2wM�2&���� � �[email protected]+$�� w5�C$'w wD� (-va&2!#,�
C3 � "%$'w+()!#, � 0�$ � v w%! v+(),93 � 0Bw $',�� w%"_(@� � 02w
v_w%$'w%02vB� � � 0 ��02"+!;w5���7!#">� 0�"�$ �K� "+!M/ (@(X$'w%(-!#,@w+!Gw5� 0 v+(-, 3 � 0Bw �Vv_w $Qw%0 � $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#, (-v

P
� [ x � P
J L w {�� x � w � w {�� x � w Y

� � 02"+0 �h0 � 02w {�� $',�� x � "+0B�9"+0�v_0�,Ww�, !;"5(X$ � (���0B� �- �� "_!#3#0�, � (@C'0J$Qw%!�(�()&�!#"_. (-w%$ � v)� � � 0 ��02"+!;w5���7!;"5� 02"
$ ���9"+!M/ (@(X$'w%(-!#,@w%!GwD�90 w+"+(L� � 0Bw �7v w $'w+0�� $��;0)* � ,9&2w%(-!#, v�()v�3#( �#02, .- !#,90 !N*Rw5� 0�* � , &2w+()!#,9v


� [

�����

x � P
J L w {�� x � w � w {�� x � w Y

w {�� x � w
w {�� x � w

������


�t0r"+02& $ �L� w5�C$'w w5� 0rv_(), 3 � 02w * � , &Bw%()!;,Q�C$;v w5� 0rv>�C$'w%()$ � �1!#" w%(-!#, � P

� J � � � J � � P � � (owD� $', $;,Ww%(-v> �( �

(�02w%"_()&Gv5�9(), * �9, &2w+()!#,HG � � 0�"_0 $;vawD� 0Gw%"_(@� � 02wS* � , &Bw%()!;, �C$;v wD� 0�v5� $'w%()$ � �1!#" w%(-!#, � P

� J �


� J � � P �

� (-w5�X!;, 0 ! *fw5� "+020[v 9(,(�02w%"_()&�v>� (), * � , &Bw%()!;, vB� � �90Jv> �(,(X0Bw%"_()& $;,��X$;,Ww%(-v> �(,(X0Bw%"+(-&�v5�C$Qw%( $ � * � , &��
w%(-!#, v�(X$M .i0�v+$;(@� w+!�$;"+(-v+0 $'v $j"+02v5� � w ! * wD� 02�9!�� . � 0Q� 0�3;0�, 02"%$;& ! * wD�902� ,��i0�"_w5� "+.i0B� v w $'w+0
L w5� 0 (),��90B�i0�,�� 02,Ww �!� $;"_w+()& � 02(X!�� 0 � Y vh( � 0 �kG w5� 0 w�� ! 0 � 0�&Bw%"+!;, v�$;"+0 (),K� ()v w%(),93�� ()v>�C$;. � 0 � � � 0 $',/w+( �
v> �(,(X0Bw%"_( � $Qw%()!;,j()v�(-"+"+0 � 0��;$',/wJw%! wD� 0 � ,K�102"_wD�9"+.i0B� v_w $Qw%0 L v_(), &20 wD� 0 ��02"+!;w5���7!;"5� 02" J$ (�( � w%!#, ()$;,
()v�$Gv5��( ! *Rw�� !A(X!;, ! 0 � 02&2w%"_!#, (-&�!��102"%$'w+!#"+v Y .��9w[()v "+0)���9()"+0)��*l!#"�wD�90E�i0�" wD� "_.10)� v_w%$'w%0 v+(-, &�0 wD�90

{ y R

Page 211

� � 02"+0 � � "_!;:_0�&Bw%vR!#,Ww%! wD� 0 v5�C$'&�0 v>�C$;, ,90B��.- �wD�90 &�!;,�
C3�� "+$'w%(-!#,�w%![.10 � v_0B� � u v �h0 � $��;0q$ � "+0�$ �K
�i!#(),Ww%0)� !��9w2G�w5� 0Q� 02"+( �;$Qw%()!;, ! *�

��� L 6 � { z Y v5� !�� v �C$'w w5� 0 % �H� "+!H&�0)��� "_0#� $;v wD�90 $ ��� (ow%()!;,C$ �
*l0 $QwD� "_0 !N* H()0 � � (-, 3 � 0S(�(), (L(���( 0�, 02"+3 0 /9�102&2w $Qw%()!;, �'$ � � 0 � (-w5� (), w5� 0 v5�C$;&20av_0 $;"_&�� 0B�#*l!#" ���

� � � >/3SB2,A.;3<�qBe> 5 * 4 �xBe,/. �-�-�#=?>/@CB 7 468 (
" !#v w�$;&BwD�C$ � & $ � &B� � $'w%(-!#, v��9v+(),93 w5� 0 % � (�02wD�9!9� �C$��#0 .i0�0�, $;&2&�!�(,� � (-v5� 0)� .� (L� 0�,Ww+(L* H(), 3



� � L 6 � { z Y $;v $ (X$'w%"_(0/ 0�()3;0�, �'$ � � 0 � "_!#. � 0B( G wD� 02, v+! � �H(), 3 (ow .� v w $;,�� $;"5� w%02&�� , (@��� 02vB� �!����
0 �;0�"eGqv+!�(�0 v5�9&�&�02v+v_(��#0 $ ��� "_!M/9(L(@$Qw%()!;, � "+!H&�0)��� "+02v,*l!;" � $;"_3#0Q� "_!#. � 0)(XveG $',�� (�� &�� $ ��� (ow%()!;,C$ �
(),9v+()3 �/w2GC& $;, .10 !#.9w%$;(), 0)� (0* �h0 &2!#, v+(L� 0�"�wD� 0 % ��0B���C$Qw%()!;, v�w+!X.i0�$Gv> Hv w%0B( wD� $'wJ&2!���� � 0�v w%02"5(�v
� 02v+&�"_(). (-, 3 (), &2"+0�$;v+(-, 3 � 0�3#"_0�02v ! *h0 / &�(ow $'w+()!#, *l"_!�( w5� 0G"+0)*l02"+02, &�0Xv_w $Qw%0 ��� � � ()v �H()0�� �1!#(-,Wwa.i0��
&�! (X02v��C$;" w%(-&B� � $;" � � v+0 * � � � � 02, � 0 (-,Ww%"+!���� &20�$ �K� "+!M/ (@(X$'w%(-!#, v�$;[email protected]�90 ,C$'w5� "+0 ! *�wD� 0 w%02"5(�v
wD� $'w � 0�v_&�"_().i0E� (-3��2� 023#"+020�v�! * 0 / &�(-w%$'w%(-!#, �

� 0 .i0�3#(-, wD� 0 $;,C$ � Hv+(-v�! *�wD� (-v v5� . v_0�&Bw%()!;, .- 0 /9$ (�(),93jwD� 0 (�0B(�.i0�" ! *�wD�90 0)���C$'w%(-!#, v+0Bw
L 6 � { z Y &2!#"+"_0�v5�i!#,��9(), 3�w+! � "_!;:_0�&Bw%()!;,j!#, � L ( � 0N�DGiwD� 0a0B���C$'w+()!#, � (-wD� � �


[ � Y ���7,�(),Ww%02"5(�0B� ()$'w%0

, !#">(@$ � ( ��$'w%(-!#,HGWwD� $'w 0B���C$'w+()!#, ()v
s � w I � \ w�� � � �

� � �


s � w I � \ w�� �


� � �

� � �
� � �

� �

� s � w I � \ w�� � �


� ��[ y L 6 � {3R Y

1 0�& $ �@� wD� $'w L � � Y $;,K� L�
� Y � 0�,9!;w%0 v5�K(A(X$'w%(-!#, v�!��#02"��9()v_w+(), &Bw�(),�� 0 / v+0Bw%v)� �t"+(-w+(), 3 I [ � " G
� � 02"+0 $;,�� " $'"+0�(-w+v�!#, 0��h$;,�� w�� ! �70 � 0�&Bw%"+!;, �C$'"_w%veG "+02v5�i0�&Bw%(��;0 � rGi$;,�� � v_(), 3,

�/vB��w%!G0 �'$ � �C$'w%0
wD�90H(X$'w+"+(0/@0 � 0B(�0�,Ww%veG � 0 !#.9w%$;(),

\ � \

[ �

� � �



! s

w $ w�
� � � � � s

��-w �& w�

�� � "� {z �


� � � � �

� �

� s



�-w �& w�

� � L 6 � {�$ Y

� (-w5� \

wD� 0 0�,90�"+3N 0 /9�102&2w%$'w%(-!#, �;$ � � 0 $;v_v+!H&�()$'w%0)��� (owD� ���

\

[ s � w I w�� �M[ �



s

w $ w�
� � � {x � � � s

��)w �& w�

� � L 6 � {�6 Y

�7,

�Hv)� L 6 � {�$ Y $;,�� L 6 � {�6 Y � 0 � $��;0 "+0B(�!��#0)� w5� 0�"+02v_w%"_()&Bw%()!;, v�!#, wD�90�(),�� 0 / v>��(Xv $',�� (),��
v+02"_w+0B� $N��� "+! � "+()$'w%0 * $'&2w%!;"+v P� $;,K� PJ � � � (-v &��C$;, 3#0G"_0B��� ()"_0�v�wD�90X$'v+v5�K(A�9w+()!#,�w5�C$'w�wD�90 �

� �

� $;"_0

x {#{

Page 212

$;,Ww%(-v> �(,(X0Bw%"+(-& � ,K� 0�"G(),K� 0 / �102"5(��9w%$'w%(-!#, � 1�0)(X0)(�.i0�"�wD� $'w wD� 0 �& (@$Qw%"+( /t0 � 0)(X02,Ww%vG$;"_0 $ � v_!$;,Ww%(-v> �(,(X0Bw%"+(���0)� � � 0�& $N� v+0 I &2!#,Ww $;(-, vG, !tw+0�"5(�v wD�C$QwA�90B�i0�,�� !;, w5� 0 &2! !;"5� (-,C$'w%02vG! *=(�!#"+0
wD� $;,�w��h!��C$'"_w%(-& � 0�v2G#w+"+(L� � �$;,�� �9()3�� 02"�0 / &�(ow%0)�@w%02"5(�v (-,

� � L 6 � {�R Y (@$ C'0[,9!a&2!#,Ww%"+(-.��9w+()!#, w%! \ �

x { x

Similer Documents