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TitleAsthma Epidemiology - Principles and Methodology - N. Pearce, et al., (Oxford, 1998) WW
TagsMedical
LanguageEnglish
File Size13.0 MB
Total Pages281
Table of Contents
                            Contents
1. Introduction
	Asthma
	Asthma epidemiology
Part I: Basic Principles of Asthma Epidemiology
	2. Study design options
		Background
		Incidence studies
		Incidence case-control studies
		Measures of effect in incidence case-control studies
		Prevalence studies
		Measures of effect in prevalence studies
		Prevalence case-control studies
		Measures of effect in prevalence case-control studies
		Cross-sectional studies
		Measures of effect in cross-sectional studies
		Longitudinal studies
		Summary
	3. Study design issues
		Precision
		Validity
		Effect modification
		Summary
Part II: Asthma Morbidity
	4. Measuring asthma prevalence
		Introduction
		General considerations
		Symptoms
		Physiological measures
		Strategies for measuring asthma prevalence
		Summary
	5. Measuring asthma morbidity
		Introduction
		Symptoms
		Physiological measures
		Health service and medication usage
		Quality of life and knowledge of asthma
		Composite measures
		Summary
	6. Measuring asthma risk factors
		General considerations
		Demographic factors
		Genetic factors and early life events
		Atopy
		Indoor environment
		Outdoor environment
		Occupational exposures
		Other exposures
		Summary
Part III: Asthma Mortality
	7. Studying time trends in asthma deaths
		Introduction
		Assessing the validity of time trends
		Assessing possible explanations for time trends
		Summary
	8. Studying the causes of asthma deaths
		Background
		Study design options
		Case-control studies of asthma deaths
		Summary
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	V
	W
	Y
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 280

Index 265

function; bronchial International Study of Asthma
responsiveness and Allergies in Childhood

and duration, 80 IUATLD, 88-90, 91
increasing, 7-8, 77-78 translation, 66, 91-92
international comparisons, 10, validation, 83-85, 88-90, 91

65-66, 75-79, 82-83, 104-107 video, 93-94
odds, 36 written, 86-93
odds ratio, 36, 38
period prevalence, 34 _

strategies for studies, 104-107
Prevalence case-control studies

study designs, 19, 37-38, 106-107,

Prevalence studies, 7-8, 19, 34-37, 67Prevalence studies, 7-8, 19,34-37,67 Regression, 40-41, 60-61, 205-206,
217

Quality of life
Asthma Quality of Life

Questionnaire (AQLQ)

81-83

Quality of Wellbeing Index (QWB),
Risk period. See study period

128
Risk ratio, 29, 56

measurement of, 127-133
Medical Outcomes Short Form

(SF-36), 129 Salmeterol. See medications
Perceived Control of Asthma Sampling of controls, 32-33

Questionnaire (PCAQ), 133 Selection bias, 63-64
Rating Scale (RS), 132-133 Sensitivity, 83-85
Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), 128, Severity. See also near fatal attacks;

132-133 mortality case-control studies;
St George's Respiratory symptoms

Questionnaire (SGRQ), 131 and control, 115-116
Standard Gamble (SG), 132-133 and risk of asthma death, 240-242
Sydney Asthma Quality of Life confounding by, 231 -232,

Questionnaire, 131-132 247-248
Questionnaires. See also exposure; definitions, 115-116

quality of life; symptoms increasing severity, 7, 8
American Thoracic Society, 87 markers of, 243-244
ECRHS, 88-90. See also European matching for, 246-247

Community Respiratory Health relationship to bronchial
Survey responsiveness, 7, 121

ISAAC, 90-94. See also severe attacks, 4, 35, 118

selection of controls, 37-38

152

129-130, 132-133

1

point prevalence, 34

Living With Asthma Questionnaire
(LWAQ), 132--133

Random error. See precision.
Randomized trials, 20-21, 116-119,

121--123, 125--127, 130--137
166, 226--229

Rate. See incidence rate
Rate difference, 31
Rate ratio, 28, 36, 38, 55, 60

Relative risk, 30
Response rates, 63--64, 85--86
Reversible airflow obstruction, 6--7,11,

Risk. See incidence proportion
Risk difference, 31

Page 281

266 Index

Smoking, 20, 24, 41,61-63, 67-68, Study base. See study period; source
160-163 population

Social class. See socioeconomic status. Study period, 19
Socioeconomic status, 61, 82, 148 Study population. See source
Source population, 19, 33 population
Soybeans. See allergens Study size, 50
Specificity, 83-85 Symptoms. See also questionnaires
Standardization, 58-60 at night, 43, 118
Statistical interaction. See effect attacks, 4, 35, 118

modification breathlessness, 43, 117, 131-132
Statistical significance, 51 chest tightness, 117
Study designs combined with BHR, 102-103

cross-sectional studies. See cross- cough, 4, 43, 66
sectional studies diaries, 117, 125-126

event studies, 171-172 morbidity studies, 117-119
incidence studies. See incidence prevalence studies, 86-94

studies wheezing, 11, 43, 66-67, 81-82,
incidence case-control studies. 86-93, 102-103, 117

See incidence case-control Systematic error. See validity
studies

longitudinal studies. See Theophyllines. See medications
longitudinal studies Time series, 19, 41 -43

opportunistic studies, 171
panel studies, 170-171 Validity, 52-66. See also confounding;
prevalence studies. See prevalence information bias; selection bias

studies Viruses. See infections
routinely collected data, 172
options, 19, 44, 49, 226-237 Wheezing. See symptoms,
prevalence case-control studies.

See prevalence case-control Youden's Index, 83-85, 89-91, 98,
studies 102-103

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