Download Artificial Cells - Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine etc., - T. Chang (World, 2007) WW PDF

TitleArtificial Cells - Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine etc., - T. Chang (World, 2007) WW
TagsMedical
LanguageEnglish
File Size7.7 MB
Total Pages482
Document Text Contents
Page 2

ARTIFICIAL CELLS
Biotechnology,

Nanomedicine,

Regenerative Medicine,
Blood Substitutes,

Bioencapsulation,
and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy

1

Page 241

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214 Arti�cial Cells

Fig. 8.4. Artificial cells containing NADH oxidizing bacterium to repeatedly
recycle NAD to NADH; artificial cells containing Pseudomonas pictorum
to remove cholesterol; and artificial cells containing Erwinia herbicola to
convert the substrates into tyrosine and L-DOPA.

Page 242

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Arti�cial Cells for Cell Encapsulation 215

and phenol to tyrosine in vitro (Fig. 8.4) (Lyold-George and Chang,
1995).

Artificial cells containing microorganisms to remove urea have also
been studied. For example, fermentation induction of Escherichia
coli with Klebsiella aerogenes gene increases its capacity for urea
removal. This can then be placed inside artificial cells to remove
urea (Fig. 8.5) (Prakash and Chang, 1996a). However, microorganisms
cannot be injected. An earlier study here on enzyme therapy using
artificial cells showed that artificial cells can be given orally (Chang,
1972a, 1974f, 1997l, 2005). We therefore administer these orally to
uremic rats. Our study showed that oral administration of polymeric
artificial cells containing Escherichia coli with Klebsiella aerogenes
gene can lower the elevated systemic urea level in uremic rats (Prakash
and Chang, 1996a). Artificial cells containing another genetically

Fig. 8.5. Artificial cells containing a genetically engineered CH5 E. coli,
that after fermentation induction, can remove systemic urea. Artificial cells
containing fermentation induced Lactobacillus delbrueckii that can remove
urea when tested in vitro. This is not a genetically engineered cells and is
used in yougart, being much safer than CH5 E. coli.

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454 Arti�cial Cells

r

recombinant human hemoglobin 35,
36, 38

recovery of consciousness in hepatic
coma 291–294

recycling NADH in lipid-polymer
artificial cells 324, 326, 327

recycling of ATP in artificial cell 320,
321

recycling of NAD(P)H in artificial cell
320, 321

red blood cell problems 2–5
reducing agents for methemoglobin

120
Regenerative medicine: basic

design of study 227
examples 226
principle 225, 226

Regenerative medicine: hepatocytes
aggregation after implantation

233, 234
galactosamine fulminant hepatic

failure 228, 229
Gunn rats with hyperbilirubinemia

229–231
hepatocyte viability after

implantation 234–236
immunoisolation 231–236
protect immunorejection 231–233
recovery of hepatocyte viability

233
Regenerative medicine: hepatocytes

and stem cells
factors to be considered 242, 243
Gunn rat model 240, 241
hepatectomized rats 241–243
in vitro viability of encapsulated

cells 237–239
in vivo viability of encapsulated

cells 237–239
survival after encapsulated

hepatocytes 241, 242
viability of in culture 237

Regenerative medicine: stem cells

blood chemistry 246
immunocytochemistry 248, 249
laparotomy and histology

247–249
PAS glycogen stain 248, 249
plasma hepatic growth factor (hgf)

levels 246, 247
possible mechanisms 248–251
remnant liver weight 245, 246
survival of hepatectomized rats

244, 245
viability of stem cells in culture

244
regional differences 53–56
regulatory issues 53–56
relevance in human 127
renal cells in artificial cells 203
replicating biological cells 332, 333
replicating nature 332, 333
reproduce and divide 330
requirements for artificial red blood cell

111, 112
ribosomal translation in artificial cell

329
ribosomes in artificial cell 328–331
routine uses of hemoperfusion 275, 276

s

safety, efficacy 53–56
self-replicating ribozyme in artificial

cell 330
simple RNA enzyme in artificial cell

329
spray dry method 340–343
stem cell 23, 24, 200, 212, 213,

225–251
stem cells in regeneration medicine

225–251
stroke-hemorrhagic shock rat model 67,

69–75
blood brain barrier 72, 73
brain edema 73, 74
duration of hemorrhagic shock

69–71

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Index 455

duration of stroke and reperfusion
injuries 71, 72

rat model 71
solutions on reperfusion injuries

72
substrate-dependent tumours 160–185,

189–194
sulfonated nylon membrane 101, 102
sulfonated polyamide 312
superoxide dismutase

see polyhemoglobin with
antioxidant enzymes

surface charge and circulation time
101, 102

surface properties of artificial cell
312–314

albumin 313
antibody 313, 314
antigen 313, 314
negative charge in collodion 312
negative charge in sulfonated

polyamide 312
PEG 313, 314
polysacharide 313, 314

survival of hepatectomized rats
241–243

t

T7 RNA polymerase and templates in
artificial cell 329

terminologies for artificial cells 299
tetrameric hemoglobin and ECG 40–42
tetrameric hemoglobin and vasoactivity

40–42
tetrameric hemoglobin <2% 43

theophylline overdose and
hemoperfusion 273–275

time line of ideas 7–11
transcription/translocation in artificial

cells 328–331
transient global cerebral ischemia 90
treatment of poisoned patients 255,

256, 266–277
tumour 211, 212

u

ultrafiltration- hemoperfusion 286–288
urea converted into essential amino

acids 324, 325
urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
321, 322

uremic metabolites and hemoperfusion
283

uremic symptoms removal 285

v

valinomycin 306–309
vasoactivity and tetrameric hemoglobin

40–42
vasopressor effects 39–43
vasopressor effects theory 39
viability of encapsulated cells 237–239

w

waste into useful products 324, 325

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