Download Arlington County Street Lighting Masterplan PDF

TitleArlington County Street Lighting Masterplan
File Size9.2 MB
Total Pages392
Table of Contents
                            Street Lighting Masterplan Report
Appendix Literature Review
		Seattle Cutsheets
				1. Scope
				2. Application
				3. Industry Standard
				4. Requirements
				4. Requirements, continued
				5. Design Changes
				6. Testing
				7. Marking
				8. Packaging
				9. Issuance
				10. References
				11. Sources
				12. Approved Manufacturers
				Streetlight Luminaire, LED, Side-mount, Residential, 38-watt
				1. Scope
				2. Application
				3. Industry Standards
				4. Requirements
				4.2 Power Supply/Driver
				5. Testing
				6. Product Approval
				7. Design Changes
				8. Marking
				9. Packaging
				10. Issuance
				11. Approved Manufacturers – Luminaires, Stock Number 013469
				12. Approved Manufacturers – Accessories, Stock Number 013470
				13. References
				14. Sources
		Boston Cutsheets
			AR18_v121715 (3)
			The Commons on Forest Hills
		Cambridge Cutsheets
	Cambridge Illuminance Requirements
		Philadelphia Cutsheets
			FIX29264 (SO#016519)
			FIX29378 (SO#016519)
			LP28883 (SO#016519)
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Arlington County

Street Lighting Masterplan

Prepared for:

Arlington County, VA

Prepared by:

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.

September 2016

Page 2

Arlington County
Street Lighting Masterplan Page 2


Arlington County currently has 600 miles of roadway that are being illuminated by approximately 20,000
streetlights. Out of 20,000 streetlights, about 7,000 are owned and maintained by Arlington County’s
Transportation, Engineering and Operations Bureau within the Department of Environmental Services.
The rest are managed by Dominion Virginia Power (DVP). Arlington County started using intelligent LED
streetlights in 2010. Since then, 85 percent of County-owned and maintained streetlights in residential
streets and commercial corridors have been converted to LEDs. The system’s wireless feature allows the
County to program lights automatically, according to the time of day and type of area (commercial or
residential).They use approximately 75 percent less power in comparison to traditional technology, which
reduces overall costs. The lights managed by Dominion Virginia Power (DVP) are non-LED.

The goals of Arlington County’s street lighting program are:
 To provide for the safety of nighttime traffic operations.
 To provide the pedestrian a safe and secure feeling.
 To deter crime on Arlington County Streets.

This study involved collecting data for 1,000 Arlington County-owned and DVP-owned street light poles.
The limits were along Wilson Boulevard and Clarendon Boulevard between N Fort Myer Drive and N
Glebe Road and from Arlington Boulevard to Columbia Pike between South Washington Boulevard and
South Walter Reed Drive. This sample was analyzed to update the GIS files and quantify the extent to
which the information in the County’s and DVP’s GIS files are up-to-date.

There is a need to determine future needs, costs, and priorities associated with street light improvements
and for programming future capital improvement projects. This street lighting master plan identifies best
practices and lessons learned based on interviews with other agencies. It makes recommendations
applicable to Arlington County regarding its future needs and priorities. As the system continues to grow,
it is becoming critical to maintain the street lighting system. This masterplan also defines a maintenance
plan for reliability of the street lighting system and to maintain safety.

Page 196

Visual Quality, Acuity, Community Acceptance - LED Streetlight Sources

Clanton & Associates - 17

these visibility metrics and the frequency of vehicular accidents at night. Small Target Visibility
(STV) is a method to calculate this relationship.

The STV method (as defined by IES RP-8) is used to determine the visibility level of an array of
targets along the roadway when considering certain factors such as the luminance of the targets,
the luminance of the immediate background, the adaptation level of the adjacent surroundings,
and the disability glare. The weighted average of the visibility level of these targets results in the
STV value.

The visibility targets for this demonstration are wooden squares seven inches on each side, with a
tab measuring 2.375 inches by 2.375 inches on one side (pictured in Figure 6). The targets came
in four colors: red, green, gray, and blue. VTTI painted the target bases to be similar to the road
surface. VTTI placed these objects along the roadway as the objects of interest in the
performance portion of the project.

Figure 6. Visibility Targets Used within Test Areas

VTTI positioned targets of each color within each of the test areas to achieve a consistent level
of vertical illuminance for all luminaire types. Each target location had fourteen lux of vertical
illuminance except for the 400 W HPS section, where twenty lux was the lowest achievable
vertical illuminance.

VTTI’s goals in setting up the visibility targets consisted of exposing each luminaire type to each
target color and matching each location by vertical illuminance. VTTI paired the target colors
(green/gray and red/blue) and intermittently shifted them among luminaires during breaks when
the luminaires were dimmed. The percent reflectance by each target color is shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Percent Reflectance by Target Color

Color Reflectance
Gray 17%
Green 17%

Page 197

Visual Quality, Acuity, Community Acceptance - LED Streetlight Sources

Clanton & Associates - 18

Blue 15%
Red 12%

Illuminance more directly characterizes a luminaire’s output, whereas luminance more directly
characterizes the amount of light perceived. Matching the targets for illuminance isolates the
lighting output, thus making the luminaires comparable on that basis. Matching the targets for
luminance would require considerations of target surface reflectance, road surface reflectance,
and target color.

Page 391

The AMA report also notes that the percentage of “blue” light in a 4000K LED source is 29%, vs.
21% for a 3000K LED source. Even if exposure to LED streetlights did have a negative health
effect, 3000K instead of 4000K probably would not make much difference, based on the marginal
difference in percentage of “blue” light.

And most importantly, the AMA says that further study is needed to assess potential health
impacts from street lighting. Agreed!


There arereasons to use 3000K sources in outdoor lighting, such as reduced sky glow (see Ian
Ashdown’s Color Temperature and Outdoor Lighting (
temperature-and-outdoor-lighting/)), glare reduction, design aesthetics, or personal/community
preference. Until recently, there was a reason to not use 3000K LED, due to significantly lower
energy efficacy compared to 4000K LED. But with recent improvements in LED technology, this
difference in efficacy is very small, negating the disadvantage.

But, there are also possible reasons to use 4000K sources in some outdoor lighting applications. A
study by Clanton & Associates and VTTI (
led-adaptive-lighting-study.pdf?sfvrsn=4) showed that 4000K LED street lighting resulted in
significantly better ability of drivers to detect pedestrians at greater distances, compared to the
other higher and lower color temperatures tested. This might make 4000K the best choice from a
safety standpoint on streets with pedestrians and cyclists. Research from RPI
( shows that perceived outdoor scene brightness is
higher with higher color-temperature sources. If you accept the premise that you need less light
(fewer photopic lumens) from 4000K street lighting than from 3000K street lighting, then a
4000K street lighting system could use less energy, and create less light pollution than a 3000K

It’s a complex problem with no simple answer. So let’s use 3000K sources for all the good
reasons, but not for some presumed public health benefit.


We should be concentrating our efforts on reducing overall light levels, putting the light only where
it’s needed, and controlling glare. This is where we can have a real impact on reducing light
pollution and negative environmental impact. I'd hate to see a future where all the streetlights are
3000K, but we are still over-lighting our streets and parking lots.

And when it comes to the effects of light on health, we should be focusing our attention on interior
lighting, lighting for shift workers, and light from display screens. This is where there is solid
evidence that the quantity and the “color” of light can have negative (and positive) health effects.

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Page 392


Posted in: EDITORIALS (

Author: Glenn Heinmiller (

For other perspectives on this issue, read the comments from the US Department of Energy

( and The National

Electrical Manufacturers Association (


Control-Efforts.aspx), and the detailed analysis from The Lighting Research Center at RPI



A final comment on one blatant error in the AMA report, that is of special interest to me—the

report says: “In Cambridge, MA, 4000K lighting with dimming controls was installed to mitigate the

harsh blue-rich lighting late at night.”

The truth is that the adaptive dimming system was planned from the beginning of the project to

reduce energy use and limit light pollution. The decision to use the adaptive dimming system had

nothing to do with mitigating “harsh blue-rich lighting”. I know this because I was intimately

involved with the design of the conversion of Cambridge’s street lighting to LED.

The Cambridge lighting control system is still the largest street lighting adaptive dimming system

in the US, as far as I know, and is significantly reducing light pollution in our City. Other cities

should be following Cambridge’s well-studied lead, and not take media sound bites or one line

excerpts from this AMA report as accurate recommendations on how to minimize negative

environmental or human health effects.

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