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TitleArchitectural Forensics
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Page 2

Architectural Forensics

http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071498427

Page 228

Chapter 12 - Plumbing Systems 209

Aerators on faucets should be periodically cleaned (every three or four months), depending upon wa-
ter hardness. Leaking faucets should be noted and recommendations to repair as needed. If washer type,
faucet washer should be replaced and if washerless type, faucet needs to be replaced.

For other types of employment, at least one lavatory for three required water closets will be provided.
For “High hazard” occupancies involving exposure to skin contamination with poisonous, infectious, or irri-
tating materials, lavatories at one per five persons are recommended.

Drinking fountains: One drinking fountain for each 75 employees or fraction and at least one foun-
tain per floor will be provided.

Toilets (water closets): Toilets sometimes continue to run water in the tank after they are filled. If wa-
ter still runs, the situation can usually be corrected by adjusting the ball float or flapper valve inside the tank.
Alternatively, the inner mechanisms of the tank need to be replaced. Where the toilet itself rocks, the bolts
may have loosened and/or the seal beneath the toilet has dried and broken and requires replacing. The
seal is there to prevent water leaks under the toilet and to prevent leakage of sewer gas. Additionally, each
plumbing fixture drain pipe should incorporate a “P” trap to provide a water filled seal that keeps sewer
gases from rising into the building interior. Within buildings, short horizontal runs of drain piping are typi-
cally connected to vertical stacks which in turn are vented up through the roof to provide a suitable escape
for the gases. Figure 12.5 indicates general recommendations for water closet allowances in commercial
and public buildings.

Toilet fixtures and fittings include levers and other parts that control the flush and water inlet valves.
The ballcock assembly is the primary mechanism that controls water supply in the tank and toilet. Auto-
mated controls for faucets, toilets, and urinals help address occupants’ concerns about disease transmis-
sion via contact with bathroom surfaces and fixtures; they can also reduce water consumption. Figure 12.6
shows a schematic drawing of an ADA compliant water closet detail.

Where toilet rooms will not be used by women, urinals may be substituted for some water closets, ex-
cept that the number of water closets in such cases will not be reduced to less than one-half to two-thirds
of the minimum specified.

Tubs and showers�grout and caulk: Tubs and showers are typically surrounded by special water
resistant material to keep the water from penetrating the walls and floor. Joints between ceramic tiles are
filled with grout which is designed to seal the joint. However, like all masonry products, it is still porous and

Figure 12.4 Generally recommended lavatory allowances for offices
and public buildings. Actual code requirements will depend on the
actual jurisdiction in which the property is located.

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210 Architectural Forensics

Figure 12.6 Schematic drawing of an ADA-compliant water closet
detail.

Figure 12.5 Recommended water closet allowance. Note that these
are "rule of thumb" recommendations. Actual code compliance depends
on the jurisdiction of the property in question.

Page 456

Index 437

Radiometry, 72
Radon, 281, 283
Radon mitigation, 284
Radon testing, 284
Rainwater sewer, 212
Ramps, 108
Rebar locator, 57
Reconstruction methods, 95
Refrigerants, 159
Regulations, 340
Relative humidity testing devices, 181
Repairability, 266
Report preparation, 40
Research skills, 3
Resection, 82
Reserves analysis, 44
Reserve schedules, 48
Reservoirs, 110
Responsibilities, 4
Retaining walls, 126
Role of the forensic architect, 23
Roof cut, 154
Roof deck, 143
Roof flashing, 144
Roofing system types, 134
Rooftop fixtures, 150
Rooftop projections, 150

S
Safety components, 315
Safety systems, 315
Sanitary sewer system, 211
Scaling photogrammetry, 94
Sealants, 273
Security needs, 331
Security threats, 328
Seismic analysis, 304
Seismic code compliance, 306
Seismic considerations, 299
Seismic risk, estimating, 304
Services, consultant, 9
Sheet pilling, 126
Shingle roofing, 134
Showers, 209
Sick building syndrome, 280

Siding, 269
Signage, 108
Single-ply roofing, 137
Sinks, 208
Site evaluations, 102
Skills

communication, 2
investigative, 3
research, 3

Slab moisture, 129
Smoke detection systems, 319
Solar energy electric systems, 197
Solar energy systems, types of, 198
Specifications, 78
Sprayed polyurethane foam, 141
Stairs, 108, 242
Standards, 3, 4, 78
Standards, ethical, 3
Standards organizations, 340
Standpipe systems, 317
Start-up costs, 375
Standard of care, 402
Steel frame system, 114
Steel joists, 116
Steel trusses, 116
Stereophotogrammetry, 85
Stone, types of, 259
Stone wall systems, 259
Storm water drainage, 103, 212
Structural aspects, 260
Structural elements, 119
Structural masonry walls, 124, 258
Styrene butadiene rubber, 140
Styrene butadiene-styrene, 140
Styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene, 141
Survey, 38
Switches, 189

T
Tank water heaters, 207
Technical competency, 2
Tensile strength test, 75
Test, guide bend, 74
Test, nick break, 74
Test, tensile strength, 75

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438 Architectural Forensics

Testing, 258
component, 76
destructive, 73
eddy current, 67
electromagnetic, 67
equipment, 55
infrared, 63
laboratory, 76, 97
load, 66
magnetic materials, 69
magnetic particle, 70
material, 76
nondestructive, 59
penetrant, 69
radiographic, 72
radon, 284
ultrasonic, 62
visual, 61

Thermal infrared testing, 63
Thermal performance, 258, 260, 263, 265, 268
Tile roofing, 134
Toilets, 209
Topography, 103
Tornadoes, 306
Triangulation, 82
Tubs, 209
Tunnels, 123
Typical deficiencies, 128, 151, 184

U
Utilities, 106
Ultrasonic pulse velocity tester, 57
Ultrasonics, testing of, 62

V
Valves, 213
Variations, 25
Vaults, 123
Viruses, 291
Visual testing, 61
Volts, 185

W
Wall finishes, 247
Wall systems, 257
Walls, 235
Warranties, 16
Warranty considerations, 151
Water heaters, tank, 207
Watts, 185
Weatherproofing, 272
Well systems, 124
Windows, 270
Window systems, types of, 271
Wood fiberboard, 151
Wood frame system, 115
Wood joists, 116
Wooden-stud-framed load-bearing walls, 125
Wood trusses, 116

X
X-ray scanning, 66

Z
Zoning, 225

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