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TitleApproaches to an Evolutionary Personality Psychology: The Case of Sociosexuality
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages254
Table of Contents
                            Table of Contents
Abstract
Zusammenfassung
Introduction
	References
Part I: The Evolutionary Genetic Approach
	The evolutionary genetics ofpersonality
		Abstract
		References
	Open Peer Commentary
		Out of the Armchair
		Personality: Does Selection See It?
		An Evolutionary Ecologist’s Viewof How to Study the Persistence ofGenetic Variation in Personality
		Consilience is Needed, and Consilience Needs Bipartisan Expertise
		Genetic Variance and Strategic Pluralism
		Beyond Just-so Stories towards a Psychology of Situations: Evolutionary Accounts ofIndividual Differences Require Independent Assessment of Personality and Situational Variables
		Life History Theory and Evolutionary Genetics
		Behaviour Genetics’ Neglected Twin: Gene-Environment Correlation
		Don't Count on Structural Pleiotropy
		Standards of Evidence in the Nascent Field of Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics
		Humans in Evolutionary Transition?
		Personality Traits and Adaptive Mechanisms
		Personality Theory Evolves: Breeding Genetics and Cognitive Science
		Do We Know Enough to Infer the Evolutionary Origins of Individual Differences?
		What Do We Really Know About Selection On Personality?
		Personality: Possible Effects of Inbreeding Depression on Sensation Seeking
		A Multitude of Environments for a Consilient Darwinian Meta-Theory of Personality: The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness, Local Niches, the Ontogenetic Environment, and Situational Contexts
		Insights from Behavioral Syndromes for the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality
		Using Newer Behavioural Genetic Models and Evolutionary Considerations to Elucidate Personality Dynamics
		Neurogenetic Mechanisms Underlying Cognition and Temperament
		The Relevance of Personality Disorders for an Evolutionary Genetics of Personality
		The Need for InterdisciplinaryResearch in Personality Studies
	Authors' response: Evolution, genes, and interdisciplinary personality research
		Abstract
		References
Part II: The Life History Approach
	Single Attribute Implicit Association Tests (SA-IAT) for the assessment of unipolar constructs: The case of sociosexuality
		Abstract
		References
	Beyond global sociosexual orientations: A more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects oncourtship and romantic relationships
		Abstract
		References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

D i s s e r t a t i o n

Approaches to an Evolutionary
Personality Psychology:


The Case of Sociosexuality


zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.)

im Fach Psychologie

an der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät II

der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

eingereicht von

Dipl.-Psych. Lars Penke

geb. am 02. September 1978 in Detmold

Dekan: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Coy

Präsident der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Prof. Dr. Christoph Markschies

Gutachter: 1. Prof. Dr. Jens B. Asendorpf

2. Prof. Dr. Steven W. Gangestad

3. Prof. Dr. Peter Borkenau

eingereicht: 10. Mai 2007

Datum der Promotion: 17. Juli 2007

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127

ability and temperament could help to resolve the ambiguous nature of temperament traits

correlated with general intelligence.

The Relevance of Personality
Disorders for an Evolutionary

Genetics of Personality
Alfonso Troisi

Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome, Italy

[email protected]

Abstract

The epidemiology of personality disorders confirms the importance of the evolutionary

approach to a better understanding of individual differences in personality traits and adds

credibility to the evolutionary genetic model. A full appreciation of the potential of the

evolutionary genetic framework requires a critical revision of current measures of

personality.



Penke et al. (this issue) address the unsolved question of explaining persistent genetic

variation in personality differences, examine data for and against three evolutionary

genetic mechanisms (i.e., selective neutrality, mutation-selection balance, and balancing

selection), and conclude that balancing selection by environmental heterogeneity seems

best at explaining genetic variance in personality traits. The article focuses on personality

differences in the normal range and limits the discussion of personality disorders to

sketching some hypotheses that could explain their origin. However, a detailed

examination of the epidemiology of personality disorders confirms the importance of the

evolutionary approach to a better understanding of individual differences in personality

traits and adds credibility to the evolutionary genetic model proposed by Penke et al.

The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) study has recently reported data on

the prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV personality disorders in the general population of

the United States (Lenzenweger, Lane, Loranger, & Kessler, 2007). Two unexpected

findings were that personality disorder is a relatively common form of psychopathology

Page 128

128

(point prevalence: 9.1%) and that a diagnosis of personality disorder not comorbid with

Axis I syndromes has only modest effects on functional impairment. Taken together, these

findings cast doubt on the traditional view of personality disorders as dysfunctional and

maladaptive extremes of normal personality traits produced by rare genotypes and raise

the question if these behavioral phenotypes have been adaptive in some environments or

during some periods of human evolution. In other words, we cannot exclude that not only

normal personality differences but also personality disorders are the product of a set of

varying selection pressures favoring different phenotypes under different environmental

conditions (Troisi, 2005).

Epidemiological data on personality disorders also suggest that gender and age configure

different socio-environmental niches. The DSM-IV general criteria for a diagnosis of

personality disorder require that the “enduring pattern” (as defined in criteria A-C) be

“stable and of long duration…” and “…onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or

early adulthood” (criterion D). Such a definition reflects the traditional view of personality

disorders as persistent, enduring, and stable patterns. However, available data suggest

that some personality disorder diagnoses demonstrate only moderate stability and that

they can show improvement over time. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial,

borderline, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders) tend to become less evident or

to remit with age (van Alphen, Engelen, Kuin, & Derksen, 2006). In particular, the behavior

characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) first appear during adolescence

and often disappear during the fifth decade, and all large-scale epidemiologic surveys of

ASPD confirm that at least 80% of those meeting criteria are men. If ASPD is viewed as a

risk-taking behavioral strategy, its improvement with age and higher prevalence among

males fit with the pattern one would predict from a life-history theory perspective.

Patterns in risk-taking are related to life-history variables, which include gender, age,

marital and parental status, amount and predictability of resources, and rates and sources

of mortality. Among patients with ASPD, ages 15-29 are those of most severe

manifestation of the disordered personality traits, including impulsivity, aggressiveness,

irresponsibility, and sensation-seeking. Among males in the general population, these are

the years of highest risk for motorcycle accidents and arrest for assault. From a life-history

theory perspective, the common explanation for these clinical and socio-demographic

findings lies in the role of risk-taking in reproductive competition, which is typically more

intense for young men than for women or older men. During the teens and young adult

years, competition for social and economic resources is acute, and one’s fate in the mating

market is being determined. For males at younger ages, the optimal strategy is to take

Page 253

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Page 254

254

1

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SOI-R Behavior SOI-R Attitude SOI-R Desire

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stable single
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single after separation

d = .76 d = .85

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d = .92



Figure 3: Mean differences in the SOI-R facets between relationship status groups in Study 2.
Notes. Groups refer to the relationship status 12 months after the assessment of the SOI-R.
Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) are given for all significant (p < .05) group differences.

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