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Dr. Klaus Brun is currently Program
Manager at Southwest Research Institute,
in San Antonio, Texas. His experience
includes positions in business development,
project management, engineering, and
marketing at Solar Turbines, General
Electric, and ALSTOM Power. Dr. Brun is
the inventor of the Single Wheel Radial
Flow Gas Turbine, the Semi-Active
Compressor Plate Valve, and co-inventor of
the Planetary Gear Mounted Auxiliary

Power Turbine. He has authored over 40 papers on turbomachinery,
given numerous technical lectures and tutorials, and published a
textbook on Gas Turbine Theory. He is the Chair of the ASME-IGTI
Oil & Gas Applications Committee, a member of the Gas Turbine
Users Symposium Advisory Committee, and a past member of the
Electric Power and Coal-Gen Steering Committees.

Dr. Brun received his Ph.D. and M.Sc. degrees (Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering, 1995, 1992) from the University of
Virginia, and a B.Sc. degree (Aerospace Engineering, 1990) from
the University of Florida.

J. Jeffrey Moore is a Principal Engineer
at Southwest Research Institute, in San
Antonio, Texas. His professional experience
over the last 15 years includes engineering
and management responsibilities at
Solar Turbines, Inc., Dresser-Rand, and
Southwest Research Institute. His interests
include rotordynamics, seals and bearings,
finite element analysis, controls, and
aerodynamics. He has authored more than

10 technical papers in the area of rotordynamics and aerodynamics
and has given numerous tutorials and lectures.

Dr. Moore received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees (Mechanical
Engineering, 1991, 1993, 1999) from Texas A&M University.

ABSTRACT

This tutorial provides an overview of the latest edition of
American Petroleum Institute (API) Code API 616 (1998) and also
provides a brief summary of API 614 (1999), 617 (2002), 670

(2000), 671 (1998), and 677 (1997) as they apply to gas turbine
driven compressors. Critical sections of the codes are discussed in
detail with a special focus on their technical interpretation and
relevance for the purchasing scope-of-supply comparison, machine
testing, and field operation. Technical compliance issues for
package, core engine, instrumentation, and driven compressor are
addressed individually. As API 616 (1998) forms the backbone for
most oil and gas combustion turbine acquisitions, it is covered
in more detail. Some recommendations for acceptance of
manufacturer exceptions to API and the technical/commercial
implications will be provided. A brief discussion of the relevance
NFPA 70 (2002) to gas turbine driven compressor sets in oil and
gas applications will also be included. This tutorial course is
intended for purchasing, operating, and engineering staff of
turbomachinery user companies.

INTRODUCTION

American Petroleum Institute (API) specifications are generally
applied to oil and gas turbomachinery applications rather than to
large industrial power generation. Oil and gas applications of gas
turbines have requirements that are inherently different from those
of the electric power industry. Namely, oil and gas applications,
and customers require:

• High availability/reliability
• Ruggedness
• High power/weight ratio
• Efficiency often not critical

While industrial power generation customers have different
critical requirements, namely:

• Cost of electricity
• Efficiency
• Cost of operation and maintenance (O&M)
Because of these inherent market differences, oil and gas customers
often insist on compliance with API codes and are willing to accept
the resultant higher turbomachinery package costs.

OIL AND GAS TURBOMACHINERY APPLICATIONS

Many applications within the oil and gas industry require the
usage of turbomachinery equipment for compression, pumping,
and generation of electricity. These applications are generally

145

API SPECIFICATION REVIEW FOR GAS TURBINE DRIVEN TURBOCOMPRESSORS

by
Klaus Brun

Program Manager

and
Jeff Moore

Principal Engineer

Southwest Research Institute

San Antonio, Texas

Page 9

centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors for use in the
petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services that handle air or
gas. This standard does not apply to fans (covered by API 673,
2002) or blowers that develop less than 34 kPa (5 psi) pressure rise
above atmospheric pressure. This standard also does not apply to
packaged, integrally-geared centrifugal plant, and instrument
air compressors, which are covered by API 672 (1996).
Furthermore, hot gas expanders over 300ºC (570ºF) are not
covered in this standard.

As with all other API codes, the equipment vendor may
offer alternative designs if these designs improve the safety or
performance of the equipment. Otherwise all designs should
comply with this standard. If exceptions to the standard are taken,
they must be clearly stated in the proposal.

SUMMARY

This tutorial provides an overview of the applicable codes
related to typical industrial gas turbine packages, including API
616 and the supporting API Standards 614 (1999), 617 (2002), 670
(2000), 671 (1998), and 677 (1997), as well as NFPA 70 (2002). As
the authors have presented, one size does not fit all in the selection
and procurement of gas turbines and many exceptions to API are
made. However, the API standards represent sound engineering
practice based on many years of experience. Therefore, exceptions
to these standards should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

REFERENCES

API Standard 613, 2003, “Special-Purpose Gear Units for
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services,” Fifth
Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 614, 1999, “Lubrication Shaft-Sealing and Control-
Oil Systems for Special-Purpose Applications,” Fourth
Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 616, 1998, “Gas Turbines for Refinery Service,”
Fourth Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 617, 2002, “Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and
Expander-Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas
Industry Services,” Seventh Edition, American Petroleum
Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 670, 2000, “Vibration, Axial-Position, and Bearing-
Temperature Monitoring Systems,” Fourth Edition, American
Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 671, 1998, “Special Purpose Couplings for
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services,” Third
Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 672, 1996, “Packaged, Integrally Geared Centrifugal
Air Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services,” Third Edition, American Petroleum Institute,
Washington, D.C.

API Standard 673, 2002, “Centrifugal Fans for Petroleum,
Chemical, and Gas Industry Services,” Second Edition,
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 677, 1997, “General-Purpose Gear Units for
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services,” Second
Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

API Standard 686, 1996, “Machinery Installation and Installation
Design,” American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

ASME B133, A Series of Standards for Gas Turbines, American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, New York.

ASME PTC-10, 1997, “Performance Test Code on Compressors
and Exhausters,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
New York, New York.

ASME PTC-22, 1997, “Gas Turbine Power Plants,” American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, New York.

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code - Section VIII - Pressure
Vessels, 2004, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
New York, New York.

ISO 3977, 1995-2002, “Gas Turbines—Procurement,” A Series of
Nine Amendments, International Organization for
Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

NFPA 70, 2002, National Electrical Code, National Fire Protection
Agency, Quincy, Massachusetts.

API SPECIFICATION REVIEW FOR GAS TURBINE DRIVEN TURBOCOMPRESSORS 153

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