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TitleAnesthesia Student Survival Guide: A Case-Based Approach
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LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages594
Table of Contents
                            Preface
Foreword to the First Edition
Contents
Contributors
Case Studies
	Chapter 1 Case Study
	Chapter 2 Case Study
	Chapter 3 Case Study
	Chapter 4 Case Study
	Chapter 5 Case Study
	Chapter 6 Case Study
	Chapter 7 Case Study
	Chapter 8 Case Study
	Chapter 9 Case Study
	Chapter 10 Case Study
	Chapter 11 Case Study
	Chapter 12 Case Study
	Chapter 13 Case Study
	Chapter 14 Case Study
	Chapter 15 Case Study
	Chapter 16 Case Study
	Chapter 17 Case Study
	Chapter 18 Case Study
	Chapter 19 Case Study
	Chapter 20 Case Study
	Chapter 21 Case Study
	Chapter 22 Case Study
	Chapter 23 Case Study
	Chapter 24 Case Study
	Chapter 25 Case Study
	Chapter 26 Case Study
	Chapter 27 Case Study
	Chapter 28 Case Study
	Chapter 29 Case Study
	Chapter 30 Case Study
	Chapter 31 Case Study
	Chapter 32 Case Study
Part I: Introduction to Anesthesiology
	Chapter 1: How to Be a “Star” Student, Career Options, and the Match
		Introduction
		How to Be a “Star” Student
		Career Options
		The Future of the Medical Specialty of Anesthesiology
		The Match
		A Typical General Anesthesia Case
		Preoperative Evaluation
			Sedation
			Monitoring
			Induction and Intubation
			Maintenance
			Emergence
			PACU Management
		Summary
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 2: History of Anesthesia and Introduction to the Specialty
		Introduction
		The Story of Ether
		Chloroform and the Queen
		Monitors
		Airway Management
		CPR
		Autonomy
		A Slumber of Anesthesiologists
		Growing Prestige
		Conclusion
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
Part II: Pharmacology
	Chapter 3: Pharmacology Principles
		Basic Pharmacologic Principles
		Pharmacokinetics
			Absorption
			Distribution
			Metabolism and Excretion
		Pharmacodynamics
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Readings
	Chapter 4: Pharmacology of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents
		Key Learning Objectives
		Benzodiazepines
		Opioids
		Induction Agents
		Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
		Depolarizing NMBs
		Nondepolarizing NMBs
		Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
		Anticholinergics
		Case Study
		References
	Chapter 5: Pharmacology of Inhalational Anesthetics
		Pharmacokinetics of Uptake, Distribution and Elimination
		Theories of Inhalational Anesthetic Action
		Depth of Anesthesia and MAC
		Nitrous Oxide
		Concentration Effect
		Second Gas Effect
		Volatile Anesthetics (Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and Desflurane)
			Isoflurane
			Sevoflurane
			Desflurane
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 6: Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics
		History of Local Anesthetics
		Local Anesthetic Mechanism of Action
		Factors Affecting Local Anesthetic Action
		Local Anesthetic Metabolism
		Uses of Local Anesthetics in Anesthesia Practice
		Local Anesthetic Side Effects and Toxicity
		Treatment of Local Anesthetic Toxicity
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 7: Pharmacology of Adjunct Agents
		Sympathomimetics
		Antiemetics
		Antihypertensives
		Dexmedetomidine
		NSAIDS (Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs)
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Readings
Part III: Preoperative Considerations
	Chapter 8: The Preoperative Patient Evaluation
		Introduction
		The Interview
		History and Physical
			History
				Airway
				Cardiovascular
				Pulmonary
				Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Disease
				Bleeding Disorders
				Endocrine
				Renal
				Neurologic
				Musculoskeletal
			Physical Exam
		Medications/Allergies
		Medical Records/Family History
		Laboratory Data
		Anesthetic Plan
		Anesthesia Consent Form
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 9: Airway Evaluation and Management
		Introduction
		Airway Anatomy
		Airway Evaluation
		Mask Ventilation
		Laryngeal Mask Airway
		Direct Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation
		Rapid Sequence Induction
		Fiber-Optic Intubation
		Video Assisted Endotracheal Intubation (Glidescope, C-Trach, C-MAC)
		Evaluation and Management of the Difficult Airway
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 10: The Anesthesia Machine
		The Anesthesia Machine Components
		Pipeline Inlets
		Cylinder Inlets
		Cylinders
		Pressure Regulation
		Fail-Safe System
		Flowmeters
		Vaporizers
		Gas Outlet
		Alarms
		Waste-Gas Scavengers
		Oxygen Flush Valve
		Anesthesia Machine Checkout
		Anesthesia Breathing Systems
		Humidifiers
		The Mechanical Ventilator
		Case Study
			The Anesthesia Machine
		Suggested Readings
	Chapter 11: Anesthesia Equipment and Monitors
		Introduction
		Blood Pressure Monitoring
		Electrocardiographic Monitoring
		Pulse Oximetry
		Capnography and Ventilation Monitoring
		Monitoring Muscle Relaxation
		Monitoring the Depth of Anesthesia
		Temperature Monitoring
		Central Venous Pressure (CVP) Monitoring
		Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring
		Other Special Patient Monitors
		Other Anesthesia Equipment
		Standards for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring
		Standard I
		Objective
		Standard II
		Oxygenation
			Objective
			Methods
		Ventilation
			Objective
			Methods
		Circulation
			Objective
			Methods
		Body Temperature
			Objective
			Methods
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
Part IV: Intraoperative Considerations
	Chapter 12: Anesthetic Techniques: General, Sedation, MAC
		The Anesthesiologist and the Airline Pilot
		Preflight Check
		Takeoff
		Cruising Altitude
		Landing
		Taxi to the Terminal
		Anesthetic Techniques
		Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC)/Anesthesia Sedation
		Choice of Anesthetic Technique
		General Anesthesia
			Physiology of General Anesthetics
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 13: Anesthetic Techniques: Regional
		Introduction
		Neuraxial Anatomy
			Indications and Contraindications
			Mechanism of Action
			Epidural Anesthesia
			Technique
			Pharmacology of Epidural Anesthesia
			Spinal Anesthesia
			Technique
			Factors Effecting Level and Duration of Local Anesthesia
			Caudal Anesthesia
			Combined Spinal–Epidural
			Complications and Side Effects: Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia
				Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES)
				Transient Neurologic Symptoms
				Cardiovascular Changes
				Post-dural Puncture Headache (PDPH)
				High/Total Spinal Anesthesia
				Urinary Retention
				Intravascular Injection
				Spinal/Epidural Hematoma
				Epidural Abscess
				Peripheral Nerve Blocks
				Identification of the Target Nerve
				Cervical Plexus Blockade
				Brachial Plexus and Upper Extremity Blocks
				Interscalene Block
				Supraclavicular Block
				Infraclavicular Block
				Axillary Block
			Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Block
				Femoral Nerve Block
				Sciatic Nerve Block
				Ankle Block
		Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (Bier Block)
			Ultrasonography
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Readings
	Chapter 14: Electrolytes and Acid-Base Analysis
		Introduction to Serum Electrolyte Composition
		Physiologic Regulation of Electrolytes
			Sodium
				Hyponatremia
				Hypernatremia
			Potassium
				Hyperkalemia
				Hypokalemia
			Chloride
		Introduction to Acid Base Physiology
		Metabolic Abnormalities
			Metabolic Acidosis
			Metabolic Alkalosis
		Respiratory Abnormalities
			Respiratory Acidosis
			Respiratory Alkalosis
				Evaluating Multiple Disorders
		Case Study
		Suggested Readings
	Chapter 15: Fluids and Transfusion Therapy
		Introduction to Water Physiology
		Perioperative Fluid Balance
		Selection of Resuscitative Fluid
			Crystalloids
			Colloid Solutions
			Crystalloid Versus Colloid
		Introduction to Transfusion Therapy and Blood Components
			Blood Groups and Compatibility
			Red Blood Cells
			Fresh Frozen Plasma
			Platelets
			Cryoprecipitate
			Complications of Product Transfusion
		Conclusions
		Case Study
			Planning for Major Blood Loss
		Suggested Readings
	Chapter 16: Peripheral, Arterial, and Central Lines and Gastric Tube Placement
		Peripheral Intravenous Lines
			Site of Cannulation
			Technique
			Troubleshooting
		Arterial Catheters
			Site of Cannulation
			Technique
			Troubleshooting
		Central Venous Catheter Insertion
			General Principles
			Cannula Size and Length
			Ultrasound Guidance
			Internal Jugular Vein
			Subclavian Vein
			Femoral Vein
			Complications
		Orogastric and Nasogastric Tubes
			Nasogastric Tube
			Orogastric Tubes
		Case Study
		Suggested Readings
	Chapter 17: Intraoperative Problems
		General Concepts
		Cardiovascular
			Dysrhythmias and Cardiac Arrest
			Hypotension
			Hypertension
			Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction
		Respiratory Disturbances
			Hypoxemia
			Hypocarbia
			Hypercarbia
			Elevated Peak Airway Pressures
			Aspiration
		Metabolic Disturbances
			Hypothermia
			Hyperthermia
		Toxins
			Immune Reactions
			Transfusion Reactions
		Post Operative Complications
		Emergence and Extubation
		Case Study
		References
Part V: Systems Physiology and Anesthetic Subspecialties
	Chapter 18: Physiology and Anesthesia for Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery
		Cardiac Anesthesia
			Normal Cardiovascular Anatomy
			The Cardiac Cycle
			Common Disease States Affecting the Heart
				Ischemic Heart Disease
				Valvular Disease
				Arrythmia Management
				Heart Failure
			Anesthetic Management of Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB)
				Preoperative Evaluation
				Monitoring
				Induction and Maintenance
				Pre-Bypass Considerations
				Management of Intraoperative Myocardial Ischemia
				Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB)
				Weaning From Cardiopulmonary Bypass
				Post Operative Care
				Minimally Invasive Cardiac Procedures
		Thoracic Anesthesia
			Anatomy
			Preoperative Evaluation
			Anesthetic Management
			One-Lung Ventilation
			Double Lumen Endotracheal Tube
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 19: Physiology and Anesthesia for Neurologic, ENT, and Ophthalmologic Surgery
		Neuroanesthesia
			Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
			Cerebral Blood Flow
		Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
		Neuromonitoring
		Neurophysiology: Anesthetic Effects
		Neurosurgical Procedures: Anesthetic Management
			General Goals
		Craniotomy
			Preoperative Considerations
		Intraoperative Considerations
		Neurovascular Surgery: Aneurysm Clipping/AVM Resection
		Neurosurgical Anesthesia Controversies
		Neurologic Disease and Anesthesia: Special Considerations
		Otolaryngology (ENT): Anesthetic Considerations
		Specialized Equipment
		Preoperative Planning
		Intraoperative Issues
		Neck Dissection
		Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
		Inner Ear Surgery
		Airway Surgery
		Ophthalmology
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 20: Obstetrics
		Normal Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy
			Cardiovascular
			Respiratory
			Central Nervous System
			Hematologic
			Gastrointestinal
			Renal
			Musculoskeletal
			Uteroplacental Blood Flow
			Maternal Fetal Exchange
		Intrapartum Fetal Evaluation
		Neonatal Evaluation: The Apgar Score
		Anesthesia for Vaginal Delivery
		Non-pharmacologic Options for Labor Pain
		Systemic Medications for Labor Pain
			Regional Anesthesia
			Epidural Analgesia
			Spinal Analgesia
			Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia
		Common Myths regarding Neuraxial Analgesia
		Anesthesia for Cesarean Section
			Spinal Anesthesia
			Epidural Anesthesia
			General Anesthesia
		Obstetric Hemorrhagic Emergencies
		Antepartum/Intrapartum Hemorrhage
		Post-partum Hemorrhage
		Anesthesia for Non-obstetric Surgery
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 21: Physiology and Anesthesia for General and Bariatric Surgery
		Obesity
		Physiologic Changes Associated with Obesity
			Cardiovascular System
			Respiratory System
			Gastrointestinal System
			Endocrine and Metabolic System
		Neurological and Psychological Problems
		Airway Challenges in Obesity
		Surgery for Obesity
		Anesthetic Considerations
			Preoperative Evaluation
			Intraoperative Considerations
			Postoperative Considerations
		Anesthesia Considerations for General Abdominal Surgery
			Preoperative Evaluation
		Intraoperative Considerations
			Laparoscopic Surgery
			Laparotomy
		Postoperative Considerations
		Anesthetic Considerations for Common Abdominal Surgeries
			Esophageal Surgery
			Stomach Surgery
			Small and Large Bowel Surgery
			Hemorrhoid Surgery
			Liver and Biliary Tract Surgery
			Spleen Surgery
			Pancreatic Surgery
			Hernia Surgery
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 22: Anesthesia for Urological Surgery
		Anatomy
		Patient Positioning
		Preoperative Assessment
		Anesthetic Management
			Cystoscopy/Ureteroscopy/TURBT
			TURP
		Laser Surgery in Urology
		Radical Prostatectomy: Open, Laparoscopic, Robotic
		Radical Cystectomy
		Nephrectomy: Open or Laparoscopic
		Renal Transplantation
		Orchiectomy, Orchidopexy, Penile Surgery
		Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
		Complications of Urologic Surgery
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 23: Pediatric Surgery
		Anatomy
		Venous Access
		Physiology
			Transition from Fetal to Neonatal Circulation
			Respiratory
			Cardiac
			Renal
			Hepatic
			Gastrointestinal
			Blood
			Neurologic
			Temperature Regulation
			Pharmacology
		Preoperative Evaluation
			Psychological Assessment
			Physiological Assessment
			OR Equipment and Setup
			Intravenous Fluids
		Pediatric Drug Preparation
		Techniques
			Induction
			Maintenance
			Emergence
		Pediatric Surgical Conditions
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 24: Physiology and Anesthesia for Elderly Patients
		Physiological Changes with Aging
			Cardiovascular System
			Pulmonary Changes
			Renal Changes
			Nervous System
		Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction and Delirium
		Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Changes
		Anesthetic Management
			Preoperative Examination
			Premedications
			Monitoring
			Intraoperative Management
		General Anesthesia versus Regional Anesthesia
		The Postoperative Period
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 25: Ambulatory Surgery and Out-­of-­OR (OOR) Procedures
		Introduction
		Ambulatory Surgery
		Preoperative Considerations
		Intraoperative Management
		Postoperative Management
		Out-of-OR (OOR) Anesthesia
			General Considerations
		Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy
		Electrophysiology Lab (EP)
		Radiology
		Neuroradiology
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 26: Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery
		Trauma
			Introduction
			Epidemiology
			Patient Assessment
			Specific Challenges
				The Trauma Arrest
				The Trauma Airway
				Clearing the C-Spine
				Head Trauma
				Bleeding
			Orthopedic Surgery
			Choice of Anesthetic
			Management of Postoperative Pain
			Special Considerations
				Positioning Injuries
				Tourniquet Issues
				Methylmethacrylate Cement
				Fat Embolism Syndrome
				Blood Loss
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
Part VI: Postoperative Considerations
	Chapter 27: Perioperative Acute and Chronic Pain Management
		Introduction
		Basic Pain Sensation in the Normal Individual
		General Pain Definitions
		Acute Versus Chronic Pain
		Treatment of Pain
			Acute Pain
			Chronic Pain
		Common Chronic Pain Medications Classifications
			Opioids
			Alpha-2-Agonist: (Tizanidine)
			Anticonvulsants: (Gabapentin, Carbamazepine, and Oxcarbamazepine, Pregabalin)
			Tricyclic Antidepressants: (Nortiptyline, Amitriptyline)
			Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: (Venlafaxine, Duloxetine)
			Cancer Pain
		Common Pain Syndromes
			Spinal Stenosis
			Radicular Pain
			Facet Arthropathy
			Discogenic Pain
			Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
			Myofascial Pain
			Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
			Postherpetic Neuralgia
			Physical Therapy
			Psychological Therapy
			Palliative Care
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 28: Postoperative Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and Common Postoperative Problems
		Admission
		Postoperative Respiratory Complications
		Postoperative Hemodynamic Complications
		Postoperative Neurologic and Other Complications
		Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)
		Pain Control
		Hypothermia and Shivering
		Discharge Criteria
		General Condition
		Hemodynamics
		Respiratory Status
		Airway
		Pain Control
		Renal Function
		Labs and Diagnostic Tests
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 29: Introduction to Critical Care
		Initial Assessment of the Critically Ill Patient
		Oxygen Balance
		Oxygen Transport
		Markers of Oxygen Balance and Tissue Perfusion
			Lactate
			Central Venous and Mixed Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation
		Hemodynamic Monitoring (Also See Chap. 11)
			Goals
			Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring
			Cardiac Output
			Central Venous Pressure Monitoring
			Pulmonary Artery Catheter
		Shock
			Classification of Shock
			Management of Shock
			Vasoactive Agents Commonly Used in Shock
			Septic Shock
		Acute Respiratory Failure
			Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
			Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
			Management of Acute Respiratory Failure
			Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
		Mechanical Ventilation
		Commonly Used Modes of Ventilation
			Assist-Control Ventilation (Also Known as CMV, Continuous Mandatory Ventilation)
			Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (IMV)
			Pressure Support Ventilation
			Positive End-Expiratory Pressure
			Inspiratory Pressures
			Initiating Mechanical Ventilation
			AutoPEEP
			Noninvasive Positive-Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV)
		Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
		Supportive Care in the ICU
			Measures to Prevent Nosocomial Infections Include
			Sedation Management
			Glucose Management
			Thromboprophylaxis
			Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis
			Nutrition
		Ethical Decisions and End-of-Life Care (Also See Chap. 31, Ethical Issues in Anesthesia)
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
Part VII: Special Topics
	Chapter 30: Professionalism, Safety, and Teamwork
		Professionalism
		“The Etiquette of Medicine”
		Safety and Teamwork
		Team Training
		Putting It All Together
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 31: Quality Assurance, Patient and Provider Safety
		The History of Patient Safety
		Quality Assurance
		The ASA Closed Claims Study
		Challenges Facing the Anesthesia Provider
		Steps to Ensure High Quality Anesthesia Care and Patient Safety
		Common Perioperative Complications
			Dental Trauma
			Eye Injury
			Peripheral Nerve Injuries
			Intraoperative Recall
		The Future
			Pay-for-Performance
			Medicare
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 32: Ethical and Legal Issues in Anesthesia
		Informed Consent
		Guide to Obtaining Informed Consent
		Malpractice
		Advanced Directives
		Do Not Resuscitate (DNR)/Do Not Intubate (DNI)
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
	Chapter 33: Clinical Simulation in Anesthesia Education
		Introduction
		What Is Simulation?
		What Is the History behind Medical Simulation?
		What Is the Evidence behind Medical Simulation?
		How Is High-Fidelity Simulation Used in Medical Training?
		What Is Crisis Resource Management?
		What Is in a Simulation Laboratory?
		What Can a Mannequin Do?
		What Should You Expect in the Simulation Laboratory?
		What Are the Expectations of You, the Learner, in Simulation Scenarios?
		How Do You Make the Best of the Simulation Experience?
		Case Study
		Suggested Further Reading
Appendix A
	ASA Difficult Airway Algorithm
Appendix B
	Malignant Hyperthermia
		Definition
		Mechanism
		Presenting Signs and Diagnosis
		Treatment
		Suggested Further Reading
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Anesthesia Student
Survival Guide
A Case-Based Approach
Second Edition

Jesse M. Ehrenfeld
Richard D. Urman
Scott Segal Editors

123

Page 2

Anesthesia Student
Survival Guide

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INTRAOPERATIVE PROBLEMS � 271

Page 298

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272 � ANESTHESIA STUDENT SURVIVAL GUIDE

Page 593

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
(TAVR) , 301

Transesophageal echocardiography
(TEE) probe , 304

Transfusion reactions , 283–284
Transfusion related acute lung injury

(TRALI) , 236 , 284
Transfusion therapy

and blood components , 233
and blood groups , 233–234
complications , 236–237
cryoprecipitate , 236
fresh frozen plasma , 235
platelets and , 235–236
red blood cells , 234–235

Transient neurologic symptoms
(TNS) , 74 , 187

Transuretheral resection of prostate or
bladder tumor (TURBT) ,
376–378

Transuretheral resection of the
prostate (TURP) , 378–379 ,
383 , 384

Trauma
airway management ,

436–437
bleeding , 438–440
blood loss , 443
blood protocol , 439
case study , 444–446
challenges , 435–440
choice of anesthetic , 440–441
clearing C-spine , 437–438
CPR , 436
epidemiology , 433–434
fat embolism syndrome , 443
head , 438
hip fracture locations , 443
massive transfusion protocol , 440
methylmethacrylate cement , 442
orthopedic surgery , 440
patient assessment , 434–435
postoperative pain management , 441

regional care , 434
tourniquet issues , 442

Trauma injury, mechanisms , 434
Tricuspid valve , 296
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) , 457
Twitch monitoring , 144

U
Ulcer surgery , 367
Ultrasonography , 198
Ultrasound , 190

central venous catheters , 249–251
use in arterial catheters , 248

Unintentional dural puncture , 346
Upper extremities

nerve blocks , 190 , 194
PIV placement , 244

Ureteroscopy , 377–378
Urinary retention , 188
Urological surgery

anatomy , 375–376
case study , 384–386
complications , 382–384
cystoscopy , 377–378
extracorporeal shock wave

lithotripsy , 382
nephrectomy , 380–381
open radical prostatectomy , 379–380
orchidopexy , 381–382
orchiectomy , 381–382
patient positioning , 376–377
preoperative assessment , 377
radical cystectomy , 380
renal transplantation , 381
transuretheral resection of the

prostate , 378–379
TURBT , 377–378
ureteroscopy , 377–378
using laser , 379

USMLE score , 7
Uterine rupture , 351
Uteroplacental blood fl ow , 339

INDEX ● 579

Page 594

V
Vaginal delivery, anesthesia for ,

344–345
Vandam, Leroy , 25
VAP . See Ventilator-associated

pneumonia (VAP)
Vaporizers , 126
Vasoactive agents, in shock , 491 , 492
Vasopressors . See Sympathomimetics
Venous access, pediatric surgery , 391
Ventilation monitoring , 141–143 ,

152–153 , 286 , 288
Ventilator-associated pneumonia

(VAP) , 500
Ventricular isovolumetric

relaxation , 299
Vertebral anatomy , 178
Victoria, Queen , 21
Video assisted endotracheal

intubation , 117

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
(VATS) , 310

Visceral pain , 452
Volatile anesthetics , 172

agents , 64
case study , 66–68
characteristics , 65

Voltage , 268
Volume control ventilation (VCV) , 130
Volume of distribution , 33 , 410

W
Waste-gas scavengers , 127–128
Water physiology , 227–228
Weight loss, procedures , 361

Z
Zero-order pharmacokinetics , 34

580 ● INDEX

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