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TitleAnd Others The Measurement of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons. INSTITU
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ED 044 853 EC 030 615

AUTHOR Yuker, Harold E.; And Others
TITLE The Measurement of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons.
INSTITUTION Human Resources Center, Albertson, N.Y.
SPONS AGENCY Insurance Co. of North America, Albertson, N.Y.:

Social and Rehabilitation Service (DHEW),
Washington, D.C. Div. of Research and Demonstration

NOTE 170p.



EDRS Price MF-$0.75 HC-$9.05
*Attitudes, Attitude Tests, *Handicapped,
*Measurement Techniques, Research Projects,
*Research Reviews (Publications)

The monograph provides a comprehensive report on
recent research related to the measurement of attitudes toward the
disabled. A review of the literature traces the development of
instruments to measure the attitudes of both disabled and
non-disabled persons. The Attitude Toward Disabled Persons (ATDP)
scale is discussed, including instructions for administration,
scoring, and interpretation. The remaining chapters include many
studies which provide validating data. These chapters cover the
demographic correlates of attitudes toward disabled persons,
including age, sex, nationality, race, and marital status, and also
the personality, attitudinal, experiential, and behavioral correlates
of attitudes toward disabled persons. Each chapter has a summary and
conclw:jons drawn from the research reported, in addition to a final
presentation of the major implications resulting from research with
the ATDP. (KW)

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Christie's F scale), and scores on a rating scale measuring rejection by employers of persons
with various disabilities. He found in one third of the correlations between the F scale and
ratings of various disabilities that a negative attitude toward the employment of disabled persons
was significantly related to F scores. In each of these three studies, all of the correlations
were all in the same direction; that is, favorable attitudes toward disability were found to be re-
lated to a lack of authoritarian attitudes.

In most of the studies reported above, a positive relationship was found between non-
accepting attitudes toward disabled persons and attitudes of prejudice toward other minority groups.
Consequently, we can conclude that attitudes toward disabled persons appear to be congruent with
other attitudes indicative either of prejudice or acceptance of outgroup members.

With regard to the less consistent findings concerning correlations between prejudice
toward disabled persons and the F scale, it should be recalled that Whiteman and Lukoff (1960b)
and Lukoff and Whiteman (1963) found measures of ethnic tolerance and authoritarianism to be cor-
related with only certain of their factored subscales of prejudice toward the blind. Authoritarianism
may well be related only to certain aspects of prejudice which may be represented to a greater or
lesser degree on the various measures of attitudes toward the disabled. This could account for
differences in degree and significance of F scale correlations with the various measures.

Other Attitude Measures

This section will discuss the relationship between attitudes toward the disabled and
measures of intellectualism, Machiavellianism, dogmatism, and other social attitude measures.
In eight correlations conducted at Human Resources (1962, 1964), the ATDP was correlated with
an Intellectualism-Pragmatism scale developed by Yuker and Block (1964).

Table 37 reveals that the correlations for disabled and non-disabled samples ranged
from +. 09 to +. 46. Two of the five correlations for the non-disabled samples were significant,
and two of the three correlations for disabled samples were significant. The three forms of the
ATDP were used. Thus, there is the suggestion of a small degree of relation between intellectual-
ism and positive attitudes toward the disabled as measured by the ATDP.

Table 38 shows the results of eight analyses done at Human Resources (1959, 1960,
1962) which correlated the three forms of the ATDP with scores on a Machiavellianism scale de-
veloped by Christie (1956) and Christie and Geis (in press). Machiavellianism is a measure of a
tendency to view other people as manipulatable or exploitable for one's own purposes so that one
will not be manipulated by them, instead. Six of the eight correlations were negative, and three of
the negative correlations were significant. The results indicate that persons with Machiavellian
attitudes tend to be somewhat less accepting of disabled persons. However, given the present
evidence, this relationship cannot be regarded as conclusive.

Following the study by Harrison (1965), it was predicted that attitudes toward the dis-
abled would be related to a tendency to hold dogmatic (closed-minded and rigid) attitudes.
Harrison studied the relationship of the ATDP-0 to Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale (DS) - Form E,
and found that the two scales were correlated +. 41 (p <. 01) in a sample of 65 college students. In
addition, the mean score on the ATDP-0 was significantly higher for the highest scoring third on
the DS than for the lowest scoring, thus confirming the positive correlation. The positive direction
of the correlation is due to Harrison's reverse scoring3 of the ATDP-0 in which high scores

3 The earliest studies done with the ATDP-0 were scored in the reverse direction from the
present scoring, i. e. , high scores indicated negative attitudes. This reversal was corrected in
the reports of other early investigators.


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reflected low acceptance of the disabled. Since closed-minded, rigid, dogmatic attitudes, as
measured by the Dogmatism Scale, are considered by Rokeach to measure, in broader scope, the
dimensions of attitude, tapped by the F scale of authoritarianism, it is to be expected that dogma-
tism, authoritarianism, and prejudice against disabled and minority groups would be intercorre-
lated. However, no known multiple correlation has yet been performed with these variables to
determine the exact relationship. Genskow and Maglione (1965) also correlated the ATDP-0 with
Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale - Form E, using eight groups of college students. The correlations
ranged from -. 01 to -.05. Although all the correlations were negative, none of them approached
significance, and cannot be considered to support the original hypothesis.

On the other hand, some support for Harrison's findings appears in a study by
Rickard, Triandis, and Patterson (1963), who asked 87 school administrators to rate persons with
various disabilities for two kinds of jobs. The Dogmatism Scale was correlated with the rejection
score of each of four disabilities for each of the two jobs. The correlations ranged from +. 03 to
+.27, the median correlation was +. 14. Although the median correlation was not significant at the
.05 level (r required for this size sample is . 18), the correlations were all in the predicted
direction, i. e., high dogmatism with high rejection of the disabled. Of the eight correlations
with the DS, two correlations with rejection of deaf employees and one with the rejection of ex-
tubercular employees were significant beyond the . 05 level. In Rickard's system for scoring the
ratings for each disability type, it is possible to partial out the factors of competence and cap-
ability, and Rickard feels that the resulting score is a measure of prejudice toward the disabled
regardless of the factor of competence and capability for the given job.

Finally, it might be hypothesized that social attitudes are positively correlated with
acceptance of other people, and therefore, with acceptance of the disabled. Fischbein (1962) re-
ports two nonsignificant correlations between the ATDP-0 and the Minnesota Inventory of Social
Behavior-Form B (r=4. 11) and Form P (r=+. 16) with 30 college students and adults in various
occupations. She also reports a nonsignificant correlation (r=+. 12) with the Minnesota Teaching
Attitude Inventory with the same sample. It is necessary, therefore, to gain additional evidence
in regard to Fischbein's findings to evaluate this hypothesis.


This chapter has presented data concerning the relationship between the ATDP and
other attitudinal measures. Once again, it is difficult to reconcile the large number of studies
cited in the chapter. However, here too, certain tentative conclusions can be reported. In
general, there seems to be a substantial relationship between the ATDP scale and other general
measures of attitudes toward the disabled. As other attitude measures begin to focus more
specifically upon subdimensions of generalized attitudes toward the disabled, the correlational
values tend to be somewhat lower. Chapter 6 has also cited evidence regarding the relationship
of ATDP scores and other measures of attitudes towards "disadvantaged or disabled" groups.
The data suggest that acceptance of the physically disabled is positively related to acceptance of
people who are different from the respondent, including such groups as the mentally ill, the aged,
and a variety of ethnic groups. Somewhat conflicting results are presented with regard to the re-
lationship of the ATDP with the authoritarian personality scale. While these results are conflicting
there is some support for the hypothesis that acceptance of the disabled tends to be somewhat
greater in non-authoritarian samples.

Finally, although an extremely limited number of studies have investigated the follow-
ing issues, it may be tentatively reported that persons with an intellectual as opposed to a prag-
matic orientation toward life are more accepting of the disabled as are pe: sons who are nut
Machiavellian in nature. Measures of dogmatism, however, show no significant relationship to
the ATDP.


Page 177

Dr, Melvin L. Schwartz
Chief of Neuropsychology
Michigan Epilepsy Center & Association
10 Peterboro
Detroit, Michigan

Dr. Jerome Siller
New York University
College of Engineering
401 West 205th Street
New York, New York

Dr. Manny Sternlicht
143 Wilson Terrace
Staten Is land, New York

Dr. Paul G. Swingle
Department of Psychology
Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Dr. Joseph A. Szuhay
University of Scranton
Scranton, Pennsylvania

Mrs. Wanda M. Tutaj
12 Sterling Avenue
Buffalo, New York

Miss V. Hideko Wada
1918 42nd Avenue
San Francisco, California

Dr. Ruth C. Webb
Jewish Vocational Service
207 E. Buffalo Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Dr. John C. Wilson
Director of Services
Ohio Valley Goodwill Industries
Rehabilitation Center
10600 Springfield Pike
Cincinnati, Ohio

Miss Lolita Wilson
Department of Psychology
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Mrs. Joane M. Wyrick, 0. T. R.
Department of Occupational Therapy
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas


Page 178

Appendix D


Avedon, E. M. Personal communication, 1965.

Brewster, G. W. Attitude change as a function of cognitive dissonance due to attitude ambivalence,
field independence, resolving ambivalence, and discrepant compliance. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1965.

Dunteman, G. H. , Anderson, H. E. , Jr. , & Barry, J. R. Characteristics of students in the health
related professions. University of Florida Rehabilitation Research Monograph Series_,
1966, No. 2.

Wilson, J. C. Personal communication, 1965.


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