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TitleAnatomy and Physiology - The Unity of Form and Function 4th ed. - K. Saladin [NO TOC] (McGraw-Hill, 2003) WW
TagsMedical Physiology
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Document Text Contents
Page 1

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

viii

Thank you to the colleagues and students who have
made this textbook so successful and helped to ensure
its staying power in a very competitive textbook niche.
Several people have asked me, with this book doing so
well, why I don’t retire from the classroom. The answer
is that not only do I find classroom teaching the most ful-
filling aspect of my profession, but also that it is my stu-
dents who teach me how to write. I work continually at
finding more and more effective ways of getting con-
cepts across to them, at turning on the light of insight.
The best ideas for communicating difficult physiological
ideas often come to mind during my face-to-face inter-
actions with students, and many are the times that I have
dashed back from the lecture room to the drawing pad or
keyboard to sketch concepts for new illustrations or
write down new explanations. Grading exams and
homework assignments also continually gives me new
impressions of whether I have effectively taught an idea
through my writing. Thus, my students are my unwitting
writing teachers. This pertains also to the students in my
“extended classroom”—students worldwide who use
the book and write to ask my help in understanding dif-
ficult concepts.

What are the improvements in this edition? I con-
tinue to aim for ever-better clarity, brevity, currency, and
accuracy. Physiology, especially, is a complex subject to
explain to beginning students, and I am always working
in both the lecture room and textbook to find clearer ways
to explain it. Physiology also is a fast-growing field, and
it’s a challenge to keep a book up to date without it grow-
ing longer and longer. After all, our lecture periods and
semesters aren’t getting any longer! So, while updating
information, I have looked for ways to make my discus-
sions more concise in each edition. I also continue to cor-
rect errors as students and content experts have sent me
queries, corrections, and suggestions. Accuracy is, of
course, an advantage of a seasoned textbook over a new-
comer, and this book has gained a lot of seasoning and a
little spice from my extensive correspondence with stu-
dents and colleagues.

This preface describes the book’s intended audience,
how we determined what students and instructors want in
the ideal A&P textbook, what has changed in this edition
to best meet your needs, how this book differs from others,
and what supplements are available to round out the total
teaching package.

Audience
This book is meant especially for students who plan to
pursue such careers as nursing, therapy, health education,
medicine, and other health professions. It is designed for
a two-semester combined anatomy and physiology course
and assumes that the reader has taken no prior college
chemistry or biology courses. I also bear in mind that
many A&P students return to college after interruptions to
raise families or pursue other careers. For returning stu-
dents and those without college prerequisites, the early
chapters will serve as a refresher on the necessary points
of chemistry and cell biology.

Many A&P students also are still developing the
intellectual skills and study habits necessary for success
in a health science curriculum. There are many, too, for
whom English was not their original language. Therefore,
I endeavor to write in a style that is clear, concise, and
enjoyable to read, and to enliven the facts of science with
analogies, clinical remarks, historical notes, biographical
vignettes, and other seasoning that will make the book
enjoyable to students and instructors alike. Each chapter
is built around pedagogic strategies that will make the sub-
ject attainable for a wide range of students and instill the
study and thinking habits conducive to success in more
advanced courses.

How We Evaluated Your Needs
This book has evolved through extensive research on the
needs and likes of A&P students and instructors. In devel-
oping its three editions so far, we have collected evalua-
tive questionnaires from reviewers; commissioned
detailed reviews from instructors using this book and
those using competing books; held focus groups from
coast to coast in the United States, in which instructors
and students studied the book in advance, then met with
us to discuss it in depth for several hours, including how
it compared to other leading A&P textbooks; and created
panels of A&P instructors to thoroughly analyze the entire
book and its art program. These efforts have involved
many hundreds of faculty and students and generated
thousands of pages of reviews, all of which I have read
carefully in developing my revision plans. In a less formal

Preface

Page 2

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

Front Matter Preface © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

way, the book has improved because of the many e-mails I
receive from instructors and students worldwide who not
only tell me what they like about it, but also raise sugges-
tions for correction or improvement. I’ve responded gen-
erously to these e-mails because I learn a great deal look-
ing up answers to readers’ questions, finding sources to
substantiate the book’s content, and sometimes finding
that I need to update, clarify, or correct a point.

How We’ve Met Your Needs
Our research has consistently revealed that the three qual-
ities instructors value most in a textbook are, in descend-
ing order of importance, writing style, illustration quality,
and teaching supplements. I have focused my attention
especially on the first two of these and on pedagogic fea-
tures, while McGraw-Hill Higher Education has continu-
ally engaged other authors and software developers to pro-
duce a more diverse package of superb supplements for
students and instructors.

Writing Style
Students benefit most from a book they enjoy reading, a
book that goes beyond presenting information to also tell
an interesting story and engage the reader with a some-
what conversational tone. That was my guiding principle
in finding the right voice for the first edition, and it
remains so in this one. I try to steer a middle course,
avoiding rigid formality on one hand or a chatty conde-
scending tone on the other. I feel I have succeeded when
students describe the tone as friendly, engaging, collo-
quial, almost as if the author is talking to them, but not
talking down to them.

In devising ways to make the writing more concise
without losing the qualities that make it interesting and
enjoyable, I have been guided by reviewers who identified
areas in need of less detail and by students who cited cer-
tain areas as especially engrossing and pleasurable to read.
In this edition, I somewhat reduced the number of bold-
faced terms and the amount of vocabulary, and fine-tuned
such mechanics as sentence length, paragraph breaks, and
topic and transitional sentences for improved flow. In
such difficult topics as action potentials, blood clotting,
the countercurrent multiplier, or aerobic respiration, I
think this book will compare favorably in a side-by-side
reading of competing textbooks.

Illustrations
When I was a child, it was the art and photography in biol-
ogy books that most strongly inspired me to want to learn
about the subject. So it comes as no surprise that students
and instructors rate the visual appeal of this book as sec-
ond only to writing style in importance. I developed many

illustrative concepts not found in other books. Profes-
sional medical illustrators and graphic artists have ren-
dered these, as well as the classic themes of A&P, in a vivid
and captivating style that has contributed a lot to a stu-
dent’s desire to learn.

As the book has evolved through these three edi-
tions, I have used larger figures and brighter colors;
adopted simpler, uncluttered labeling; and continued to
incorporate innovative illustrative concepts. A good illus-
tration conveys much more information than several times
as much space filled with verbiage, and I have cut down
on the word count of the book to allow space for larger and
more informative graphics.

The illustration program is more than line art. I con-
tinue to incorporate better histological photography and
cadaver dissections, including many especially clear and
skillful dissections commissioned specifically for this book.

Several of my students have modeled for photo-
graphs in this book. As much as possible with the volun-
teers who came forth, I have represented an ethnic variety
of subjects.

Supplements
The third most highly rated quality is the package of learn-
ing supplements for the student and teaching aids for the
instructor. Instructors have rated overhead transparencies
the most important of all supplements, and we now include
transparencies of every item of line art in the book, and
some of the photographs and tables. Included are unlabeled
duplicates of many anatomical figures, useful for testing or
labeling to fit one’s individual teaching approach. A full set
of both labeled and unlabeled illustrations is also available
in the Instructor’s Presentation CD-ROM.

Students have expressed growing enthusiasm and
appreciation for the Online Learning Center and the
Essential Study Partner. We have continued to enrich
these media with an abundance of learning aids and
resources. These and other student and instructor supple-
ments are listed and described on page xiii.

What Sets This Book Apart?
Those who have not used or reviewed previous editions
will want to know how this book differs from others.

Organization
The sequence of chapters and placement of some topics in
this book differ from others. While I felt it was risky to
depart from tradition in my first edition, reviewer com-
ments have overwhelmingly supported my intuition that
these represent a more logical way of presenting the

Preface ix

Page 596

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

15. The Autonomic Nervous
and Visceral Reflexes

Text © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

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Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes 583

Selected Vocabulary
autonomic nervous system 564
sympathetic division 565
parasympathetic division 565

autonomic tone 565
preganglionic neuron 566
postganglionic neuron 566

sympathetic chain 567
enteric nervous system 573
cholinergic 574

adrenergic 574
dual innervation 575
vasomotor tone 577

Testing Your Recall
1. The autonomic nervous system

innervates all of these except
a. cardiac muscle.
b. skeletal muscle.
c. smooth muscle.
d. salivary glands.
e. blood vessels.

2. Muscarinic receptors bind
a. epinephrine.
b. norepinephrine.
c. acetylcholine.
d. cholinesterase.
e. neuropeptides.

3. All of the following cranial nerves
except the ______ carry
parasympathetic fibers.
a. vagus
b. facial
c. oculomotor
d. glossopharyngeal
e. hypoglossal

4. Which of the following cranial nerves
carries sympathetic fibers?
a. oculomotor
b. facial
c. trigeminal
d. vagus
e. none of them

5. Which of these ganglia is not
involved in the sympathetic
division?
a. intramural
b. superior cervical
c. paravertebral
d. inferior mesenteric
e. celiac

6. Epinephrine is secreted by
a. sympathetic preganglionic fibers.
b. sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
c. parasympathetic preganglionic

fibers.
d. parasympathetic postganglionic

fibers.
e. the adrenal medulla.

7. The major autonomic control center
within the CNS is
a. the cerebral cortex.
b. the limbic system.
c. the midbrain.
d. the hypothalamus.
e. the sympathetic chain ganglia.

8. The gray communicating ramus
contains
a. visceral sensory fibers.
b. parasympathetic motor fibers.
c. sympathetic preganglionic fibers.
d. sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
e. somatic motor fibers.

9. Throughout the autonomic nervous
system, the neurotransmitter released
by the preganglionic neuron binds to
______ receptors on the postganglionic
neuron.
a. nicotinic
b. muscarinic
c. adrenergic
d. �1
e. �2

10. Which of these does not result from
sympathetic stimulation?
a. dilation of the pupil
b. acceleration of the heart

c. digestive secretion
d. enhanced blood clotting
e. piloerection

11. Nerve fibers that secrete
norepinephrine are called ______
fibers.

12. ______ is a state in which a target
organ receives both sympathetic and
parasympathetic fibers.

13. ______ is a state of continual
background activity of the
sympathetic and parasympathetic
divisions.

14. Most parasympathetic preganglionic
fibers are found in the ______ nerve.

15. The digestive tract has a semi-
independent nervous system called
the ______ nervous system.

16. MAO and COMT are enzymes that
break down ______ at certain ANS
synapses.

17. The adrenal medulla consists of
modified postganglionic neurons of
the ______ nervous system.

18. The sympathetic nervous system has
short ______ and long ______ nerve
fibers.

19. Adrenergic receptors classified as �2,
�1, and �2 act by changing the level of
______ in the target cell.

20. Sympathetic fibers to blood vessels
maintain a state of partial
vasoconstriction called ______.

Answers in Appendix B

True or False
Determine which five of the following
statements are false, and briefly
explain why.

1. The parasympathetic nervous system
shuts down when the sympathetic

nervous system is active, and vice
versa.

2. Blood vessels of the skin receive no
parasympathetic innervation.

3. Voluntary control of the ANS is not
possible.

4. The sympathetic nervous system
stimulates digestion.

Page 597

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

15. The Autonomic Nervous
and Visceral Reflexes

Text © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

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584 Part Three Integration and Control

5. Some sympathetic postganglionic
fibers are cholinergic.

6. Urination and defecation cannot
occur without signals from the brain
to the bladder and rectum.

7. Some parasympathetic nerve fibers
are adrenergic.

8. Parasympathetic effects are more
localized and specific than
sympathetic effects.

9. The parasympathetic division shows
less neuronal divergence than the
sympathetic division does.

10. The two divisions of the ANS have
antagonistic effects on the iris.

Testing Your Comprehension
1. You are dicing raw onions while

preparing dinner, and the vapor
makes your eyes water. Describe the
afferent and efferent pathways
involved in this response.

2. Suppose you are walking alone at
night when you hear a dog growling
close behind you. Describe the ways
your sympathetic nervous system
would prepare you to deal with this
situation.

3. Suppose that the cardiac nerves were
destroyed. How would this affect the
heart and the body’s ability to react to
a stressful situation?

4. What would be the advantage to a
wolf in having its sympathetic
nervous system stimulate the
piloerector muscles? What happens
in a human when the sympathetic
system stimulates these muscles?

5. Pediatric literature has reported many
cases of poisoning in children with
Lomotil, an antidiarrheic medicine.
Lomotil works primarily by means of
the morphine-like effects of its chief
ingredient, diphenoxylate, but it also
contains atropine. Considering the
mode of action described for atropine
in insight 5.2, why might atropine

contribute to the antidiarrheic effect
of Lomotil? In atropine poisoning,
would you expect the pupils to be
dilated or constricted? The skin to be
moist or dry? The heart rate to be
elevated or depressed? The bladder to
retain urine or void uncontrollably?
Explain each answer. Atropine
poisoning is treated with
physostigmine, a cholinesterase
inhibitor. Explain the rationale of this
treatment.

Answers at the Online Learning Center

Answers in Appendix B

Answers to Figure Legend Questions
15.4 No; inhaling and exhaling are

controlled by the somatic motor
system and skeletal muscles.

15.5 The soma of the somatic efferent
neuron is in the ventral horn and
the soma of the autonomic
preganglionic neuron is in the
lateral horn.

15.7 The vagus nerve.

www.mhhe.com/saladin3
The Online Learning Center provides a wealth of information fully organized and integrated by chapter. You will find practice quizzes,
interactive activities, labeling exercises, flashcards, and much more that will complement your learning and understanding of anatomy
and physiology.

Page 1191

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

End Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Vaginal process, 1023f
Vaginal transudate, 1068, 1069f
Valence electrons, 60, 62
Valence of an ion, 59
Valium, 629i
Valsalva maneuver, 855, 906,

977, 1075
Valves

cardiac
anatomy of, 721–722, 721f–722f
disorders of, 723i
functioning of, 722, 723f,

734–736, 735f
insufficiency of, 723i, 763
prolapse of, 723i
stenosis of, 723i
surgical replacement of, 716

lymphatic, 801, 802f
venous, 753, 763–764, 763f–764f,

1111
Vanadium, 57t
Varicella-zoster, 493i
Varicocele, 1042t
Varicose veins, 753i, 1072, 1111
Varicosities, autonomic, 433, 434
Vasa recta, 884f, 885, 886f, 898, 900f
Vasa vasorum, 750
Vascular spasm, 703, 703f
Vas deferens. See Ductus deferens
Vasectomy, 1081i, 1081t, 1115i
Vasoactive chemicals, 757, 812
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP),

832, 833i, 955
Vasocongestion, 1040, 1068
Vasoconstriction, 101i, 577, 578, 664,

755, 756f
cutaneous, 18, 200, 814

Vasodilation, 577, 578, 755
cutaneous, 17, 200, 814

Vasomotion, 755. See also
Vasoconstriction; Vasodilation

blood flow and, 757–760
thermoregulation and, 17–18, 18f,

200, 814, 1011
Vasomotor center, 526, 529, 757–758
Vasomotor tone, 435, 577, 578f, 758f
Vasopressin, 644. See also Antidiuretic

hormone
Vectors of disease, 199
Veins, specific

accessory hemiazygos, 786f, 786t
arcuate, of kidney, 884f, 885, 886f
ascending lumbar, 786f–787f, 786t
axillary, 45f, 782f–783f, 784t, 785f
azygos, 786f, 786t
basilic, 782f, 785f, 785t
brachial, 45f, 782f, 784t, 785f
brachiocephalic, 45f, 782f–783f, 784t
bronchial, 786t
cardiac, great and middle, 725, 725f
central (of liver lobule), 960–961,

960f
cephalic, 43f, 45f, 398f, 782f,

785f, 785t
coronary sinus, 725, 725f
cystic, 788f, 789t
deep femoral, 790f
digital

of foot, 790t, 790f–791f
of hand, 785f

dorsal, of penis, 1030f
dorsal pedal, 790f–791f, 790t

dorsal venous network, 785f, 785t
esophageal, 786t
facial, 783f, 784t
femoral, 43f, 45f, 377f, 782f,

790f–791f, 791t
femoral circumflex, 790f
fibular, 790f, 790t
gastric, 788f, 789t
gastroepiploic, 788f–789f
gonadal, 782f, 787f, 787t
great cardiac, 725, 725f
great saphenous, 43f
hemiazygos, 786f, 786t
hemorrhoidal, 974, 975f
hepatic, 46f, 782f, 787f, 787t, 789f
hepatic portal, 788f–789f, 789t, 960f
iliac, common, 782f, 786t, 787f,

790f–791f, 791t
iliac, external, 782f, 787f,

790f–791f, 791t
iliac, internal, 782f, 787f,

790f–791f, 791t
intercostal, 567f, 786f, 786t
interlobular, 884f, 885, 886f
jugular, external and internal, 44f,

49f, 521, 782f–783f, 784t
lumbar, 786f–787f, 786t
median antebrachial, 785f, 785t,
median cubital, 398f, 782f,

785f, 785t
mediastinal, 786t
mesenteric, inferior and superior,

46f, 50f, 788f–789f, 788t
metacarpal, 784t, 785f
metatarsal, 790f–791f
middle cardiac, 725, 725f
occipital, 783f
ophthalmic, 783f, 784t
ovarian, 787t, 1050, 1052f
palmar arches, 784t, 785f
palmar digital, 784t
pancreatic, 788t
pericardial, 786t
peroneal. See fibular
phrenic, 787f, 787t
plantar, 790f–791f
popliteal, 782f, 790f–791f, 791t
posterior cardiac, 725f
pulmonary, 678f, 717, 719f,

767, 768f
radial, 782f, 784t, 785f
renal, 782f, 787f, 787t, 883f,

885, 886f
saphenous, great and small, 782f,

790f–791f, 791t
splenic, 788f, 788t, 789f
subclavian, 45f, 49f, 782f–783f,

784t, 785f
superficial circumflex iliac, 790f
superficial epigastric, 790f
superficial temporal, 783f, 784t
suprarenal, 787f, 787t
testicular, 787t, 1024, 1026f–1028f, 1027
thoracic, 782f
thyroid, 783f
tibial, anterior and posterior, 782f,

790f–791f, 790t
ulnar, 782f, 784t, 785f
umbilical, 1097, 1099, 1100f
vena cava

inferior
blood flow in, 757t, 764

diaphragm, relationship
to, 345f

fetal, 1099, 1100f
heart, anatomical

relationship to, 717,
719f, 721f

location of, 46f, 50f, 782f
tributaries of, 786t–787t,

787f, 789f
superior

heart, anatomical
relationship to, 717,
719f, 721f

location of, 45f–46f, 782f
tributaries of, 783f,

783t–786t,
785f –786f

venous arches
of foot, 790f–791f, 790t–791t
of hand, 784t, 785f

vertebral, 783f, 784t
Veins in general, 716. See also Sinuses;

Venous return
blood flow in, 739, 757t, 763–765
blood pressure in, 754, 755f
blood volume in, 753f
fetal, 1099, 1100f
structure and types of, 749f,

752–753
systemic

overview of, 782f
tables of, 783t–791t

varicose, 753i
Vellus, 202
Venoms, 437, 693t, 709, 828. See also

Poisoning; Toxins
Venous pooling, 765
Venous reserve, 864
Venous return, 739, 763–765
Venous sinuses, 752
Ventilation. See Pulmonary ventilation
Ventilation-perfusion coupling,

862, 863f
Ventral horn, 484f, 485
Ventral ramus, 493, 495f–496f
Ventral root, 485, 491f, 492, 495f–496f
Ventricles

of brain, 517, 518f, 521, 522f, 527f
of heart, 719f, 720, 721f

Ventricular fibrillation, 732f, 732i
Venules, 752, 812
Verapamil, in treating hypertension,

793i
Vernix caseosa, 1101t
Vertebrae, 49f

cervical, 262, 262f, 272t
coccygeal, 246t, 268, 279f, 280t
compression of, 239i
general anatomy of, 264,

264f, 265f
lumbar, 14, 262, 262f, 263,

267, 267f
number of, 262, 263
sacral, 47f, 246t, 267–268, 279f, 280t
thoracic, 262, 262f, 266–267, 267f

Vertebral arch, 264, 264f
Vertebral canal, 36, 36f, 37t
Vertebral column, 48f, 245f, 246t,

262–268, 262f–268f
adaptation to bipedalism, 263,

287f, 287i
Vertebral furrow, 395f

Vertebral region, 33f, 395f
Vertex position, 1073, 1073f,

1074, 1101t
Vertigo, 310i
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL),

991, 991t, 992f, 1004t
Vesalius, Andreas, 4, 5f, 716
Vesicles

of brain, 519, 520f
Golgi, 118–119, 118f, 139, 140f
optic, 519, 520f
phagocytic, 112, 112f
pinocytotic, 113, 114f
secretory, 114, 139, 140f
synaptic, 414, 415f, 417, 418f, 448,

463, 464f, 465
transport, 139, 140f

Vesicular transport, 112,
112f–114f, 115t

Vestibular apparatus, 606
Vestibular bulbs, 1056f
Vestibular folds, 844f–845f, 845, 846,

847f, 948
Vestibular glands, greater and lesser,

1056f, 1068
Vestibular nucleus, 489
Vestibule

of inner ear, 599
of vulva, 1020f, 1055, 1068

Vestibulospinal tracts, 486t, 489, 543f
Vestigial organs, 10i, 204
Viagra, 1040i
Vibration, sense of, 486t, 487, 588, 589t
Vibrissae, 204, 844f
Villi, 964, 965, 966f, 969. See also

Chorionic villi
Viral infections, 556t, 815i

AIDS, 830
defenses against, 814, 819, 820
meningitis, 521i

Virgin lymphocyte pool, 817, 826t
Viruses

as carcinogens, 151
cytomegalovirus (CMV), 1104
defense against, 809, 810, 814, 820
hepatitis, 1043i
herpes simplex (HSV), 1043i, 1104
human immunodeficiency (HIV),

524, 829–832, 830f
human papilloma (HPV), 1043i
polio, 490
rubella, 1104
size of, 97t
transport of, 114
varicella-zoster, 493i

Viscera, 36
Visceral muscle, 176, 177f, 433, 434f
Visceral nerve fibers, 492t
Visceral reflex arc, 564
Visceral senses

cerebral center for, 532
vagus nerve and, 554t

Viscosity of blood, 680–681, 693, 755
Vision, 549t, 610–628

brain and, 530f, 532, 540, 541f
color, 11, 625–626, 626f
stereoscopic, 11, 11f, 626, 627f

Visual association area, 540, 541f
Visual filling, 615, 615f
Visual reflexes, 486t
Vital capacity, 856, 856t, 857f, 1111
Vital signs, neonatal, 1103i

Index I-35

Page 1192

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third
Edition

End Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Vitamin A (retinol), 235t, 990, 995
deficiency and excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
storage of, 1004t

Vitamin B1 (thiamine), 1012i
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 84, 995t, 996
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), 688, 693,
693t, 954, 973, 1111

RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
storage of, 1004t

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 60, 235t, 688,
693t, 995

excess of, 996
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t

Vitamin D (calcitriol)
calcium homeostasis, role in, 926
deficiency, 239i, 926
effect of PTH on, 648
excess, 996
functions of, 232, 232f–233f, 235t, 995
for infants, 1104
intestinal absorption of, 973, 990
and lactation, 1078
and osteoporosis, 239i
in pregnancy, 1072
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
synthesis, 199, 231, 233f, 654, 880,

995, 1004t, 1108–1109
Vitamin E (�-tocopherol), 60, 990, 995

RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
Vitamin K (phylloquinone), 707i, 708i,

990, 995
bacterial synthesis of, 976, 995
neonatal, 1104
in pregnancy, 1072
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t

Vitamins, 234, 235t, 994, 995–996
absorption of, 973
deficiencies, 996
fat-soluble, 78t, 973, 990, 995, 995t
functions of, 989t, 995
RDA and dietary sources of, 995t
water-soluble, 973, 995, 995t

Vitreous body, 612f, 613, 614i, 1110
Vocal cords, 48f, 844f–845f, 846, 847f
Volar region, 398f
Volta, Alessandro, 424i
Voltage, 415
Voltage-regulated gates, 100, 457t, 458,

460, 461
Volume depletion, 919
Volume excess, 920, 921t
Voluntary muscle, 408, 432t
Voluntary nervous control, 564, 566t
Vomiting, 526, 925, 955
Voodoo, 833i
Vulva, 1055–1056, 1056f

W
Walking, neural control of, 482
Warfarin, 708i
Warm-up exercises, 386i, 424
Warts, genital, 1043i
Wastes, metabolic, 16, 880. See also

Nitrogenous wastes
Water

body content of, 916
conservation by kidney, 887f, 894,

897–899, 897f
hydrogen bonding of, 62, 62f, 855
intake, 918f
intestinal absorption of, 973
loss, 916–919, 918f–919f

metabolic, 1000–1001, 1000f
osmosis of, 107
properties of, 63–65, 64f
requirement and functions of, 989t
retention, 199

Water balance, 916–921, 1103
disorders of, 919–921, 920i, 932t,

933i–934i
in old age, 1112

Water diuresis, 897, 921f
Water intoxication, 920, 921t
Watson, James, 132i, 133f, 140
Wave summation, 425
WBC. See Leukocytes
WBC count. See Leukocyte count
Weight

control, 986
gain in pregnancy, 1073, 1073t

Wells, Horace, 628i–629i
Werner syndrome, 1113
Wernicke’s area, 544, 545f
White blood cells (WBCs). See

Leukocytes
White fat, 169
White matter

of brain, 516, 522f, 532–533, 533f
of spinal cord, 485

White muscles, 430
White pulp of spleen, 807, 808f
Wilkins, Maurice, 132i
Withdrawal (contraceptive method),

1079i, 1081t
Word roots, 20
Work, 68, 85
Working memory, 474
Wormian bones, 244
Wound healing, 184f, 185–186, 664
Wrist, 274, 365, 365f, 398f. See also

Bones, specific: carpal
Wrist drop, 494i

X
X chromosome, 146, 146f, 149,

1018–1019, 1105f, 1106
Xenografts, 211
Xiphoid process, 269, 269f,

345f, 394f
X rays, 22i, 23f, 59, 60

teratogenic effect of, 1104

Y
Y chromosome, 146, 146f, 149,

1018–1019, 1105f, 1106
Yellow bone marrow, 223, 225f
Yellow elastic tissue, 169
Yolk sac, 685, 1094f–1096f, 1097,

1098, 1098f
origin of germ cells in, 1034, 1061

Z
Z disc, 411, 413t, 417, 423, 432t,

433, 436
Zeiss, Carl, 6
Zinc, 57t, 202i, 994t, 1112
Zona pellucida, 1064, 1065f,

1090, 1091f
Zygomatic arch, 250f, 254, 258, 336f
Zygomatic process, 249f, 254, 254f
Zygote, 1018, 1062f, 1091,

1092f, 1099t
Zygote intrafallopian transfer, 1115i
Zymogens, 954, 963t

I-36 Index

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