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TitleAn Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.9 MB
Total Pages197
Table of Contents
                            I.INTRODUCTION
	A.SOUND IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
	B.RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
	C.THESIS ORGANIZATION
II.BACKGROUND
	A.SPATIAL HEARING AND SOUND
	B.SOUND AND EMOTION
		1.Linking Performance with Optimum Stress or Arousal
		2.Linking Arousal with Audio
	C.SOUND AND TRAINING
		1.Linking Audio with Performance
		2.Linking Performance with Memory, Expertise and Training
		3.Selected Task Analyses
		4.Summary
	D.VOICE OVER IP (VOIP) TECHNOLOGY
	E.LIVE VOICE IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
	F.ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
III.CURRENT ARCHITECTURE DESIGNS
	A.INTRODUCTION
	B.OPEN AUDIO LIBRARY (OPENAL)
	C.DIRECTSOUND3D(
	D.EAX( 3.0
	E.SOFTWARE API SUMMARY
	F.AUDIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
	G.AUSIM3D GOLDSERVER
	H.OVERALL SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
IV.VOICE LATENCY ANALYSIS
	A.INTRODUCTION
	B.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
		1.Apparatus
		2.Procedures
	C.RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
	D.SUMMARY
V.SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION
	A.INTRODUCTION
	B.GFAUDIO
		1.gfAudioGlobal
		2.gfListener
		3.gfSoundObject
		4.gfAudioEnvironment
		5.gfAudioEnvironmentTransition
		6.gfAudioEnvironmentManager
		7.gfNetVoice
	C.AUSERVERLIB
		1.auSystem
		2.auBase
		3.auSource
		4.auListener
		5.auSound
		6.auChannel
		7.auNotify
		8.auTools
		9.Summary
VI.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
	A.SUMMARY
	B.RECOMMENDATIONS
	C.FUTURE WORK
APPENDIX A. GFAUDIO DOCUMENTATION
	A.GFAUDIOENVIRONMENT CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Types
		2.Public Methods
		3.Public Attributes
		4.Detailed Description
		5.Member Enumeration Documentation
		6.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		7.Member Function Documentation
		8.Member Data Documentation
	B.GFAUDIOENVIRONMENTMANAGER CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	C.GFAUDIOENVIRONMENTTRANSITION CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	D.GFAUDIONET CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		4.Member Data Documentation
	E.GFCUBE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	F.GFLISTENER CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Protected Methods
		4.Protected Attributes
		5.Detailed Description
		6.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		7.Member Function Documentation
		8.Member Data Documentation
	G.GFNETVOICE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Detailed Description
		3.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		4.Member Function Documentation
	H.GFSHAPE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Protected Attributes
		4.Detailed Description
		5.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		6.Member Function Documentation
		7.Member Data Documentation
	I.GFSOUNDOBJECT CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Types
		2.Public Methods
		3.Public Attributes
		4.Protected Methods
		5.Protected Attributes
		6.Detailed Description
		7.Member Enumeration Documentation
		8.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		9.Member Function Documentation
		10.Member Data Documentation
	J.GFSPHERE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	K.VOICE_INFO STRUCT REFERENCE
		1.Public Attributes
		2.Detailed Description
		3.Member Data Documentation
APPENDIX B. AUSERVERLIB DOCUMENTATION
	A.AUBASE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Protected Attributes
		4.Detailed Description
		5.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		6.Member Function Documentation
		7.Member Data Documentation
	B.AUCHANNEL CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	C.AULIST CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		3.Member Function Documentation
	D.AULISTENER CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	E.AUPOSITION CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	F.AURADPATTERN CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	G.AUREFDATA CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Data Documentation
	H.AUSERVERGUI CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Detailed Description
		3.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
	I.AUSOUND CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Detailed Description
		4.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		5.Member Function Documentation
		6.Member Data Documentation
	J.AUSOURCE CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Protected Methods
		4.Protected Attributes
		5.Detailed Description
		6.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		7.Member Function Documentation
		8.Member Data Documentation
	K.AUSYSTEM CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Public Attributes
		3.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
		4.Member Function Documentation
		5.Member Data Documentation
	L.UPDATEGUI CLASS REFERENCE
		1.Public Methods
		2.Detailed Description
		3.Constructor and Destructor Documentation
APPENDIX C. VOICE LATENCY DATA
	A.INTRODUCTION
	B.AUSIM3D GOLDSERVE DATA
	C.DIRECTVOICE DATA
	D.SAMPLE DIRECTVOICE LIVE VOICE
LIST OF REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
Monterey, California

THESIS


AN AUDIO ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATING SOUND
AND LIVE VOICE FOR VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS


by


Eric M. Krebs


September 2002



Thesis Advisor: Russell D. Shilling
Co-Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken

This thesis done in cooperation with the MOVES Institute


Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

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Page 98

8. auTools

The auTools class contains methods to set global variables in the GoldServe audio

environment, such as global rolloff factors and global atmospheric absorption rates

affecting all sounds and live input channels. Additionally, the auTools class contains

utility methods used by the auListener, auSound and auChannel classes to provide

sequential source numbers used by the GoldServe for source and system management.



9. Summary
The auServerLib implementation’s primary purpose is to permit the inclusion of

live, low-latency, spatialized voice in a networked virtual environment. However, the

software library’s secondary purpose was to encapsulate the GoldServe’s native

programming API (CRE_TRON) into a useful programming suite of tools for use in

other applications as well. The auServerLib can be used to create a complete, stand-alone

auditory environment or can be used exclusively as the audio suite for a virtual

environment. The main reason for not choosing the Ausim3D GoldServe for all audio in

a virtual environment is its inability to provide effects, such as occlusion, obstruction,

exclusion and reverberation, currently incorporated by EAX. Ausim3D is currently

developing a programming API that will incorporate all aspects of environmental

acoustics.

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VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. SUMMARY
This thesis has provided guidance and an example of an audio architecture

capable of serving various configurations of virtual environment training systems. From

single, independent users to networked, multi-user shared virtual environments with live

streaming voice, this architecture is capable of delivering a fully immersive, interactive,

and high quality audio capability for inclusion in virtual environment training systems

and simulators. The software component of this architecture is capable of operating on

any standard PC and is developed from free or public-domain source code. The hardware

component, the Ausim3D GoldServe, is COTS technology immediately available for

utilization.



B. RECOMMENDATIONS
The architecture recommended by this thesis for use in virtual environment

training systems is meant to support three virtual environment configurations:

• Single, independent user

• Multiple users, live voice not required

• Multiple users, physically co-located, live voice required

• Multiple users, physically distributed, live voice required

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For single, independent users, a combination of DirectSound3D and EAX

software operating on a single PC can provide the types of sounds and sound effects

necessary to accurately simulate most acoustic environments found in military training

scenarios. DirectSound3D encompasses the functionality to fully spatialize all sounds,

providing dynamic distance attenuation, rolloff, volume and frequency manipulation, and

source directivity. Since sound is interactive with the environment in which it is played,

EAX provides the ability to model sound interaction with the physically modeled

graphical environment to create effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and

exclusion. Without these effects, sounds in an environment will not appear to be realistic

nor will they sound as they do in the real world. As seen in the two task analyses of

military training evolutions, acoustic cues may be critical elements of a task. If a virtual

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INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST

1. Defense Technical Information Center
Ft. Belvoir, Virginia


2. Dudley Knox Library
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California


3. Dr. Michael Zyda, Chairman
Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) Institute
Monterey, California


4. Dr. Russell Shilling
Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) Institute
Monterey, California


5. Dr. Rudolph Darken
Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) Institute
Monterey, California


6. CDR Eric Krebs
Fairfax, Virginia

177

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