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                            University of Massachusetts Amherst
[email protected] Amherst
	January 2007
An Analysis Of The Saftey Effects Of Crosswalks With In-pavement Warning Lights
	George Gadiel
AN ANALYSIS OF THE SAFTEY EFFECTS OF CROSSWALKS WITH IN-PAVEMENT WARNING LIGHTS
                        
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University of Massachusetts Amherst
[email protected] Amherst

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

January 2007

An Analysis Of The Saftey Effects Of Crosswalks
With In-pavement Warning Lights
George Gadiel
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Figure 13 Simulator Screen Capture featuring Eye and Head Tracker Crosshairs.



The experiment consisted of 32 men and women ranging in age from 18 to 65

with a valid drivers’ license and an assumed 20/40 vision (corrected) or better and were

not screened for demographics. The goal was to have a balanced number of men and

women participate in the experiment, with an equal number of men and women in two

groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental condition consisted of 18

crosswalks at night. The first 17 crosswalks consisted of either flashing or no flashing

lights. The flashing lights had a pedestrian crossing from either the right or left and the

crosswalks without flashing lights did not have a pedestrian. Four different random

patterns of flashing and no flashing lights were chosen for the experimental group and are

listed in Table 5. The last crosswalk had no flashing lights, but a pedestrian to test if

drivers had been reconditioned to look for flashing lights; rather than for pedestrians

queued on the curb. Each crosswalk had a pedestrian crossing sign to warn drivers to be

alert for potential pedestrians.

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Table 5 Simulator Scenarios
Simulator Scenarios
Crosswalk 1 2 3 4

1 Flasha No Flash No Flash Flash
2 Flash No Flash Flash Flash
3 No Flashb Flash No Flash Flash
4 Flash Flash Flash No Flash
5 No Flash No Flash No Flash No Flash
6 No Flash Flash Flash Flash
7 Flash No Flash Flash No Flash
8 Flash Flash No Flash No Flash
9 No Flash No Flash Flash Flash

10 No Flash Flash No Flash Flash
11 Flash No Flash No Flash No Flash
12 No Flash No Flash Flash No Flash
13 Flash Flash Flash Flash
14 No Flash No Flash No Flash Flash
15 No Flash Flash Flash No Flash
16 Flash Flash Flash Flash
17 Flash Flash No Flash No Flash

18
No Flash and a

Pedestrian
No Flash and a

Pedestrian
No Flash and a

Pedestrian
No Flash and a

Pedestrian
a Lights Activated
b Lights Not Activated



The control group was similar to the experimental however, there were no

flashing lights at any of the crosswalks. A total of 16 different subjects participated in

each group.

The research identified driver scan patterns to determine if the driver was looking

at the lights, scanning for pedestrians, or looking elsewhere by comparing the

experimental group to the control group. Additionally, the researcher recorded if the

driver yielded to the pedestrian and any driver behavior.

The data collected with the driving simulator was used to determine if drivers are

looking exclusively at the flashing lights. Additionally, the data collected from this

simulator evaluation -- percentage of drivers who yield to pedestrians -- was compared to

data collected from simulator evaluations involving traditional marked crosswalks using

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Warning Lights at Crosswalks: Novelty or Longevity? Institute of Transportation
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13. Malek, M. Crosswalk Enhancement Comparison Study. Presented at Institute of
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