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TitleAir Pollution XV
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Table of Contents
Air Pollution XV
Copyright Page
	Fifty years air pollution research and policy in the EU
Section 1: Air pollution in Portugal
	Air pollution and child respiratory diseases: the Viseu case study, Portugal
	Application of TAPM to predict photochemical air pollution over Portugal
	Evaluating ozone spatial distribution in Portugal using passive samplers
	Composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols in Portugal during the 2003 summer intense forest fire period
	Influence of traffic on the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in Oporto region
Section 2: Air pollution modelling
	Modelling of carbon monoxide dispersion along roads with the use of the finite element method
	Air velocity and pollutant profiles in Krakow
	Optimizing the prediction models of the air quality state in cities
	Evaluation of industrial sources' contribution to PM10 concentrations over a coastal area
	A neural network based model to forecast hourly ozone levels in rural areas in the Basque Country
	Satellite imagery used in constructing emission maps for air quality modelling in the Dubai-Sharjah (UAE) region
	A distributed computing solution for CALPUFF
Section 3: Air quality management
	Local scale vehicles pollution study in the absence of sufficient data: the case of the city of Thessaloniki
	Barriers and opportunities to successful local air quality management consultation in England, a common website and air quality indices to compare cities across Europe
	Air quality management in Auckland, New Zealand
	Simplified reading of one-year air pollution: ranking of chemical and physical variables
	SOx emission reduction in the ceramic industry: BAT and beyond
	Pollutants site ratio as appointment of highway, industrial and farming sources
Section 4: Emission studies
	Decreasing greenhouse effect in agriculture using biodiesel - when green may be enough
	Trends and sources identification of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) concentration in rural areas in France
	Emission inventory for an urban area: construction and use
	Computing mobile emissions for the Montreal area
	Renewable energy impact in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at local scale: the case study of South Tuscany geothermal fields
	Wood processing as a source of terpene emissions compared to natural sources
	Measuring fugitive emission in the printing sector as a verification of the solvent management plan according to the EU Solvent Directive
	Chemical processes effect on ambient air quality: modelling and primary/secondary pollutants monitoring study
	Air quality in vicinity of a government school in Kuwait
	Mapping anthropogenic B(a)P releases in the Great Lakes Basin
	Traffic pollutant emissions in Barreiro city
	Source apportionment of VOC in 3 French sites by CMB and PMF models and critical analysis
	Simulation of fuel consumption and emissions in typical traffic circumstances in Belgium
	Modelling vehicles kinematics and parking processes relevance on pollutant emissions in the city of Florence
Section 5: Monitoring and laboratory studies
	Biological monitoring - the useful method for estimation of air and environment quality
	Ambient air quality monitoring in southern Kuwait
	Characterization of BTEX sources in a medium-size city by concentration statistical analysis and GIS technique
	Potentialities of Vis-NIR spectroradiometry for mapping traffic emissions in urban environments
	A pilot investigation into the potential of mineral magnetic measurements as a proxy for urban roadside particulate pollution
	Trends in ozone levels and identification of visible injuries on agricultural crops in areas in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley
	A method for the characterisation of ambient dust: geochemical analyses of directional sticky pad dust samples
	NOx adsorbent formulation research by uniform design
	Effects of process changes on concentrations of individual malodorous sulphur compounds in ambient air near a Kraft pulp plant in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
	Odour studies and health risk assessment: two complementary approaches in response to residents' complaints
	Atmospheric volatile organic compounds in a Portuguese mountain region
Section 6: Aerosols and particles
	PM and NO2 at urban sites with different traffic exposure: curb site measurements in Flemish cities
	Human exposure against particles: the indoor-outdoor problem
	Size distribution of commuters' exposure to airborne particulate matter in buses in the UK
	A comparison between aerosols modelled and measured by AERONET network emitted by vegetation fires over Iberian Peninsula
	Generation of monodisperse aerosols through condensation nuclei control
	Assessment of particle pollution in an industrial area in Kuwait
	Identification of particulate matter and vitreous fibres in the atmosphere of a megacity
Section 7: Climate change and air pollution
	Global climate change - the technology challenge
	CDM project approval and evaluation criteria: comparative study of Morocco and South Africa
	First investigations on gas-phase mercury in two Italian cities
Section 8: Indoor pollution
	Indoor air quality in Portugal: technical, institutional and policy challenges in the implementation of the directive on the energy performance of buildings (work in progress)
	Identification and evaluation of the volatile organic compounds in working environment areas at a material recycling facility
	Gas phase photocatalytic oxidation of VOC using TiO2-containing paint: influence of NO and relative humidity
Author Index
Document Text Contents
Page 2

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Air Pollution XV

Home of the Transactions of the Wessex Institute.

Papers presented at Air Pollution XV are archived in the WIT eLibrary in volume 101 of
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (ISSN 1743-3541).

The WIT eLibrary provides the international scientific community with immediate and
permanent access to individual papers presented at WIT conferences.

Page 309

1 Introduction

In Kuwait, the urban population is growing at about 3.4% per year [1].
This increase in population in addition to the development of urban areas has in
turn resulted in massive increase in the demand for transport. Motor vehicles and
buses are the only means of road transportation in Kuwait. Road vehicles have
increased as shown in Figure 1 with an average growth of 3.0% annually.
The number of buses has not increased from year 1993 until year 2002 [2], and
its annual growth rate is negligible. At present, there are 377.2 vehicles for every
1000 persons, which indicate that there are 2.65 persons per car [1]. Motor
vehicles and buses cause environmental pollution due to exhaust emissions and
tyres abrasion which depend on driving cycles, engine design and condition, fuel
composition and air to fuel ratio. The vehicular emissions constitute harmful
pollutants that affect the health adversely such as carbon monoxide, particulate
matter, nitrogen oxides, and lead. A large proportion of urban pollution is
mainly due to road traffic.
According to the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Kuwait statistical data and
Ministry of Planning statistics, the school buses are serving approximately 17 to
18% of students in the government schools. Based on 2003/2004 statistics, there
are 23,302 students using buses out of 131,597 total students. The rest of
students mostly depend on private transportation.
According to various reports [3], it was proved medically that the vehicle air
pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and
particulates (PM10) have pronounced effect on human health as shown in
Table 1.

population grow th = 44.041x - 85828

vehicles grow th = 14.65x - 28465

private car grow th = 16.016x - 31337







1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005







Population Vehicles Private car

Linear (Population) Linear (Vehicles) Linear (Private car)

Figure 1: Vehicles in use and the growth of population [1]., ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line)
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol 101, © 2007 WIT Press

292 Air Pollution XV

Page 310

Table 1: Health effects of vehicle air pollution.

Pollutant Source Health Effects

Nitrogen dioxide

One of the nitrogen oxides
emitted in vehicle exhaust

May exacerbate asthma
and possibly increase
susceptibility to

Particulates PM10,
Total Suspended
Particulates, Black

Includes a wide range of solid
and liquid particles in air.
Those less than 10µm in
diameter (PM10) penetrate the
lung fairly efficiently and are
most hazardous to health.
Diesel vehicles produce
proportionally more
particulates than petrol vehicles

Associated with a wide
range of respiratory
symptoms. Long-term
exposure is associated
with an increased risk of
death from heart and
lung disease.
Particulates can carry
carcinogenic materials
into the lungs

Carbon monoxide

It is mainly produced from
petrol car exhausts

Lethal at high doses. At
low doses can impair
concentration and
function. Increases the
likelihood of exercise
related heart pain in
people with coronary
heart disease. May
present a risk to the

Ozone (O3) Secondary pollutant produced
from nitrogen dioxides and
volatile organic compounds in
the air

Irritates the eyes and air
passages. Increases the
sensitivity of the

Volatile organic
compounds (VOCs)

A group of chemicals emitted
from the evaporation of
solvents and distribution of
petrol fuel. Also present in
vehicle exhaust

Benzene has given most
cause for concern in this
group of chemicals. It is
a cancer causing agent
which can cause
leukemia at higher doses
than are present in the
normal environment

Source: [3]., ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line)
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol 101, © 2007 WIT Press

Air Pollution XV 293

Page 618

Air Pollution XIII
Edited by: C. A. BREBBIA, Wessex
Institute of Technology, UK

Air Pollution continues to be a major cause
of concern all over the world and is a problem
that requires urgent attention. The
contamination of our atmosphere affects the
quality of life and has serious consequences
for human health and climatic change. As
the energy demands of the world’s population
continue to increase at an accelerating rate,
air pollution increases and the problem is
becoming more difficult to solve.
This situation, which is in danger of becoming
out of control, has resulted in a widespread
awareness of the public to the degrees of air
pollution. This has led to demands to find
ways of stopping further deterioration of air
quality and to start implementing remedial
Air Pollution XIII presents some of the latest
developments in this field, bringing together
recent results and state-of-the-art
contributions from researchers around the
world. It contains the papers presented at
the 13th International Conference on
Modelling, Monitoring and Management of
Air Pollution. The aim of the Conference
was to develop a better understanding of the
problem and new tools for managing air
This volume contains a series of important
contributions to our knowledge in this
important field.

Series: Advances in Air Pollution Vol 15

ISBN: 1-84564-014-4 2005 696pp

Edited by: A.G. KUNGOLOS, University of
Thessaly, Greece, C.A. BREBBIA, Wessex
Institute of Technology, UK,
C.P. SAMARAS, TEI of West Macedonia,
Greece and V. POPOV, Wessex Institute of
Technology, UK

This book addresses the need for the
exchange of scientific information among
experts on issues related to environmental
toxicology, toxicity assessment and
hazardous waste management. Publishing
papers from the First International
Conference on Environmental Toxicology,
the text will be of interest to biologists,
environmental engineers, chemists,
environmental scientists, microbiologists,
medical doctors and all academics,
professionals, policy makers and
practitioners involved in the wide range of
disciplines associated with environmental
toxicology and hazardous waste management.
The text encompasses themes such as: Acute
and Chronic Bioassays; Tests for Endocrine
Disruptors and DNA Damage; Interactive
Effects of Chemicals; Bioaccumulation of
Chemicals; Assessment of Ecotoxicological
Properties of Hazardous Wastes; Hazardous
Waste Management Techniques; Legislation
Regarding Environmental Effects of
Chemicals; Hazardous Waste Reduction and
Recycling Techniques; Biodegradation and
Bioremediation; Monitoring of Hazardous
Waste Environmental Effects; Laboratory
Techniques and Field Validation; Effluent
Toxicity, Microbiotests; Forensic
Toxicology; Genotoxicity/Mutagenicity and
Accidental Spills.

WIT Transactions on Biomedicine and
Health, Vol 10
ISBN: 1-84564-045-4 2006 384pp

All prices correct at time of going to press but
subject to change.

WIT Press books are available through your
bookseller or direct from the publisher.

Page 619

Regional and Local
Aspects of Air
Quality Management
Editors: D.M. ELSOM, Oxford Brookes
University, UK and J.W.S. LONGHURST,
University of the West of England, UK

The resolution of local and regional air
pollution problems requires the development
of an appropriate scientific and decision-
making framework within which effective
air quality management may be undertaken.
Drawn from nine countries around the world
- Argentina, Australia, Colombia, India, Iran,
Italy, Mexico, the United Kingdom and
United States - this collection of case studies
describes the development and
implementation of selected aspects of local
or regional management frameworks and/or
measures adopted in the pursuit of achieving
and sustaining acceptable air quality.
Partial Contents: Air Quality
Management in Australia; A Critical
Evaluation of the Local Air Quality
Management Framework in Great Britain -
Is It a Transferable Process? Monitoring
and Modelling Air Quality in Mendoza,
Argentina; Management of Motor Vehicle
Emissions in the United States; Sectoral
Analysis of Air Pollution Control in Delhi;
Air Quality Management in the Greater
Tehran Metropolitan Area.

Series: Advances in Air Pollution, Vol 12
ISBN: 1-85312-952-6 2004 336pp

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Modelling Urban
Vehicle Emissions
M. KHARE, Indian Institute of Technol-
ogy, India and P. SHARMA, Indraprastha
University, India

“…a worthwhile source to dip into when
establishing an emissions inventory or
setting up an Air Quality Management
District. …it probably will (and should)
appear on the lists of more specialised

Comprehensive and well-organised, this
unique book presents various air quality
modelling techniques, previously scattered
throughout the literature, together with their
applications. It also provides a step-by-
step guide to using these models, followed
by case studies to illustrate the points
Partial Contents: Urban Air Quality
Management and Modelling; Air Pollution
Due to Vehicular Exhaust Emissions - A
Review; Development and Application of
Vehicular Exhaust Models.

Series: Advances in Transport, Vol 9
ISBN: 1-85312-897-X 2002 232pp

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