Download Advancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods: Development and Evolution Form, Construction, and function Taphonomy, Palaeoecology, Palaeobiogeography, Biostratigraphy, and Basin Analysis PDF

TitleAdvancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods: Development and Evolution Form, Construction, and function Taphonomy, Palaeoecology, Palaeobiogeography, Biostratigraphy, and Basin Analysis
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Page 2

Advancing Research on
Living and Fossil Cephalopods

Development and Evolution

Fonn, Construction, and Function

Taphonomy, Palaeoecology,
Palaeobiogeography, Biostratigraphy,
and Basin Analysis

Page 273

The Use of Landmarks to Describe Ammonite Shape 269

o
Figure 6. Comparison of the whorl
section shape for 60 specimens be-
longing to eight species by the
LSTRA method. (A) Each segment
links one landmark on one individ-
ual to the homologous point on the
mean consensus individual calcu-
lated from the entire population.
This representation shows the mor-
phological variation on the scale of
the eight species. (8) Detail ofland-
mark S5.

Protogrammoceras dilectum
Protogrammoceras celBbratum
Protogrammoceras cur/anN

B

Protogrammoceras volubile
Fuciniceras lavinianum
FucinicetaS Issell
Protogrammoceras marianii
Fucinicsras comacald6nsB

for the whorl section). These two measurements cannot be compared with one another as
the analysis does not concern the same number of points nor the same morphological char-
acter. However, measurements between species are perfectly comparable if the same char-
acter is described by the same number oflandmarks (see below).

Analysis of all the individuals of the eight species allows us to visualise the set of
morphologies expressed. This is done using the generalised least square technique (OLS,
Bookstein, 1991) and is illustrated here for the shape of the whorl section (Figure 6). In
this case the difference between each individual and the mean consensus individual (cal-
culated from the whole population) is represented by a straight line (Fig. 6A). The shape
of the segment cloud indicates whether there are any preferential changes on the scale of
the population. For points 84 and 85, for instance, the cloud is strongly anisotropic
(Fig. 6B), probably due to shell construction constraints. In addition, the direction of
changes in this region allows the two groups of species to be separated: P dilectum, P
celebratum and P curionii (clearly sharp monocarinate venter) versus P volubi/e, F. lav-
inianum, F. isseli, P marian ii, F. cornacaldense (shouldered to tricarinate venter).

4.3. Morphological Maps

4.3.1. Baseline. Rib shape only is discussed here. The set oflandmarks of the eight spe-
cies (after processing by the baseline method) may be plotted on the same morphological
space, where differences in shape can be read directly (Figure 7). There is a clear segregation
between the two morphological genera for the ventral segment: shorter and more acute angle
(relative to the baseline) in Fucinicerasthan in Protogrammoceras. The latter is found, how-
ever, in two morphological states with the species P celebratum and P curioniicharacterised
by a particularly long segment (relative to the baseline). Conversely, this segregation between
the two genera is not found for the umbilical segment. On the contrary, amorphological trend
is noticeable: the angle (a) of the segment varies from closed to open, paralleling the strati-
graphic position ofthe species, a feature which had not been reported until now.

Page 274

Figure 7. Comparison between species us-
ing the baseline method for ribs. a: angle
between the umbilical segment of the rib
and the baseline.-1

P. Neige

<> P. curionii
• F. comacaldense
A P. celebra/um
v P. marianii

• F. isseli
• F. lavinianum
o P. volubile

* P. dilec/um

R4

o

270

2

~~
XS

R3

R2
R1

R3

~

baS!line
i

Ys
R2 ;

0

a

-1 -l-.---.---.--r--r--h-................:::;:::::;::::::;::::::;::::::;::::;:4.
0,6

4.3.2. LSTRA. The fit of eight species taken two-by-two can be used to construct a
distance matrix for the rib pattern and for the whorl section (Table I). The phenetic trees
calculated from these matrices are not congruent with respect to these two characters (Fig-
ure 8). For the ribs, the two morphological genera are segregated, whereas for the whorl
section, P. marianii is located in the morphological space of Fuciniceras. These still pre-
liminary findings require complete analysis on the scale of the Harpoceratinae subfamily
before they can be really interpreted, in particular to understand any biomechanical rela-
tions between the two characters.

Table 1. Matrix of the arithmetic differences between species (I.i), calculated
by the LSTRAmethod. (A) for ribs, (B) for whorl sections

u. #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7
A (ribs)

P. dilectum (#1)
P. volubile (#2) 0.20
F. lavinianum (#3) 0.40 0.34
F. isseli (#4) 0.44 0.38 0.06
P. mariani! (#5) 0.26 0.12 0.25 0.30
P. celebratum (#6) 0.38 0.22 0.51 0.56 0.28
F. cornacaldense (#7) 0.55 0.59 0.44 0.41 0.55 0.78
P. curioni! (#8) 0.40 0.46 0.80 0.83 0.57 0.33 0.92

B (whorl sections)
p. dilectum (#1)
P. volubile (#2) 0.75
F. lavinianum (#3) 1.20 0.58
F. isseli (#4) 0.93 0.59 0.40
P. mariani! (#5) 0.98 0.68 0.44 0.21
P. celebratum (#6) 0.50 0.88 1.43 1.24 1.34
F. cornacaldense (#7) 0.83 0.40 0.50 0.33 0.48 1.04
P. curioni! (#8) 0.56 0.88 1.42 1.24 1.34 0.29 1.02

Page 545

Index

Tarussa horizon, 507
Tauriconites, 230
Tela/urn, 162, 163,164,165,166,167,168

cavum, 164
solidum, 164
solidum/telum cavum ratio, 162, 164, 168

Temperoceras, 384
temperans, 384, 388

Tentacle-width, 18, 19,20
Tentacular club, 17, 18, 19,21
Tenuicostatum Subzone, 472
Teretiusculus Biozone, 139
Tethys, -an, 62, 93, 109,397,410,411,419,422,423,

424,425,428,429,430,431,432,433,459,
460,472,476,478,484

Tethyan faunas, 62
Tethyan margin, 397
Tethyan Ocean, 432
Tethyan Realm, 93, 428, 429, 430, 432, 433, 472,

476
Tethyan region, 109
Tetrabelus. 425,430
Tetrabranchiata, -te, 189, 190, 198, 199,200
Tetragonites, 235

glabrus, 234, 238
Teuthoida, 199
Thanatocoenosis, 339
Thieuloyi horizon, 472
Thurmanniceras, 523, 524, 526, 527

duraznensis var. lateumbilicatus, 526
aff. keideli, 526
neogaeus, 526
pertransiens, 526, 528
Thurmanniceras pertransiens Zone, 529
Tintinnopsella, 466

carpathica, 464, 467, 482
longa, 464,467,482

Tirolites beds, 118, 122
Titanites, 80
Tithonian, 323, 330, 421,426, 463, 464, 468, 471,

472,474,476,478,480,481,482,484,485,
486,487,521

Tmetoceras. 91, 395, 404, 410
circulare. 93, 95, 96
dhanarajatai. 93, 97
difalense. 98, 396
jlexicostatum. 94, 395, 411
Gemmellaroi. 94
Hollandaelhollandae. 98, 396
kirki. 93, 97,101,411
kirkijlexicostatum.97
kirki kirki. 97
recticostatum. 93, 94, 96, 101
regleyi. 91, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 395, 396, 398,
403,408,409,410,411,412

scissum. 91, 94, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 395, 396,
398,403,408,409,410,411,412

tenue.93
Tmetoceratidae, -nae, 92, 396, 398, 404, 405, 406,

407,411,412

549

Tmetoites, 93
Toarcian, 93, 98,100,165,167,419,422,423,427,

428, 431,433
Tonofibrils, 176, 184
Torquatisphinctes, 467, 471
Torulites, 515
Toumaisian, 505, 507, 508, 509, 517
Tragoceras, 150
Tragophylloceras, 329

numismale, 329
Transgression, 62, 70, 71, 347, 359, 463, 478, 488,

498,500,501
Transient forms, 95, 97
Transitorius Zone (Subzone), 466, 476
Tremadoc, 139, 150, 154
Tremoctopus, 5
Triangular replacement cell, 189, 196, 199
Triassic, 109, 110, 118,166,167,230,317,318,329,

362,420,422
Trichonodella papilio, 495
Trilacinoceras, 148
Trinchesia granosa, 184
Triplicatus Zone, 466, 472
fMucronatum Zone, 476

Tripteroceratidae, 147, 156
Trisulculosus (A.), 423
Tr~onoceras,309,356,512,514, 515

berkhense, 513
lepidum, 302
peregrinsum, 349
typicale, 302

Trocholitidae, 150, 156
Troedssonella, 146
Troedssonellaceae, -Ilidae, 144, 146, 147, 154
Tropites, 318

fusobullatus, 3I8
johnsoni, 318
keili,318
morani,319
reticulatus, 3I8
reticulatus-johsoni, 318, 319
subcuadratus, 319
welleri, 318

Tuarkiricus Zone, 437, 440, 441,449,454,
458,459

Tuberculatus Subzone, 111, 112, 119, 120
Tuft cell, 173, 176, 178, 180
Tula horizon, 507
Tumulites, 297, 302, 308, 311

varians, 349, 352, 354
Turonian, 64, 324, 328, 425
Turrilitaceae, 250
Tympanocera, 309

getinoi, 514, 515
guttula, 30 I
porrectum, 301

Uhakuan, 139, 148, 150
Uhlandi Subzone, 472

Page 546

550

Ultrastructure, -ral, 5, 25, 47, 48, 49, 52, 173, 174,
185,186,190,199,203,214,223,224,227,
228,229,230,234,240,241,247

Upa horizon,.507
Uralopronorites, 309

mirus, 301
Uralopronorites-Cravenoceras Zone, 296, 299, 300,

301,303,304,305,306,307,308,309,310,
311,507,508,512,514,517

Vacuole, 194,212,218
Valanginian, 223, 224, 419, 425, 430, 521, 522, 526,

527,528,529
Valanginiles, 521, 522, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528, 529

argentinicus, 521, 523,526,529
Valastean, 139, 143, 148, 150, 154
Valhallan, 139
Valhallites ornalUS, 349,354
Vallites, 251
Vampyromorpha, 5, 8
Vampyropoda, -an, 5, 9
Vampyroteuthis, 5,9

infernalis, 8
Vasiform, 140
Vasseuria, 51,55
Vener horizon, 507
Ventral lobe, 24, 53
Ventrolobendoceras, 142, 143
Ventromyarian muscle, 154
Verneuilites pygmaeus, 351, 355, 360
Verruciferum (Haploceras), 323
Verrucosum Zone, 528
Vesicles, 176,177,178,180,184,185,186,194,211,

212,218
Vimineus Zone (Subzone), 466, 476, 486
Virgatosphinctes, 466, 474

denseplicatus, 478
Virgatosphictinae, 465, 466, 467, 468, 472, 474, 476,

477,478,480,481,482,486,487,488
Virgilian, 53
Viruan, 137, 139
Viscous fingering (model), 275, 289
Visean, 295, 296, 299, 300, 305, 306, 310, 311,312,

505,507,508,510,512,517

Index

Volkhonian, 137, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147,
148,154

Vulgaris (A.), 423

Warnantian, 507, 511
Weissi Zone, 437, 444, 445, 447, 449, 454, 458,

459
Wenlock, 381, 382
West Pacific Province, 410
Tethyan affinity, 474, 488
Tethyan Subrealm, 93, 97, 396, 409, 410, 411
(western) Tethys, 100,396,411,471,478

Westenoceras, 230
Whiteavesites, 152
Whitefieldoceras, 152
Whiterockian, 139
Williamsoceras, 144
Wincheloceras, 515
Wutinoceratidae, 154

Xenoceltites, 114
matheri, 114
Xenodiscidae, 114
Xinjiangoconus, 165
Xiphoteuthid, -ae, 161, 164, 422, 427
Xiphoteuthidid, -ae, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168,422,

427
Xiphoteuthidoidea, 164, 165
Xiphoteuthis,161

Zapal-Tyube horizon, 507
Zebrina,79
Zephyroceras, 297,309

bransoni, 350, 358
donabile, 302
frilcoense, 82,350, 353,358,359
trunkum, 302

zeuschneri (Aspidoceras), 477
Zhifangoceras, 508, 517

angustilobatum, 508, 509, 515, 517
Zidadarites leveni, 302
Zigzag zone, 319
Zootype, 10
Zugmontites, 162, 165

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