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iAdvancing Learning Outcomes and Leadership Skills Baseline Report, August 2016 i

African Population and
Health Research Center

ADVANCING LEARNING OUTCOMES
AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS AMONG
CHILDREN LIVING IN INFORMAL

SETTLEMENTS OF NAIROBI THROUGH
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

Page 2

ii Advancing Learning Outcomes and Leadership Skills Baseline Report, August 2016

ADVANCING LEARNING OUTCOMES
AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS AMONG
CHILDREN LIVING IN INFORMAL

SETTLEMENTS OF NAIROBI THROUGH
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

This research report has been published by the African

Population and Health Research Center © 2016

Baseline Report, August 2016

African Population and
Health Research Center

African Population and
Health Research Center

African Population and Health
Research Center

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33Advancing Learning Outcomes and Leadership Skills Baseline Report, August 2016

Perception on the individual’s own schooling was assessed using four attributes, rated on a 3-point
Likert–type scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 3 (disagree), as presented in Table 4.4. Pupils were
asked to rate how much they liked school, how well they got along with their teachers, whether they
tried their best in school and if doing well in school was important for their future. Pupils in Korogocho
differed significantly from those in Viwandani in terms of liking school and getting along with their
teachers. Pupils in Korogocho rated significantly (p=0.003) higher for liking school, with 98% strongly
agreeing to liking school compared to 92% in Viwandani. Differences in how well pupils got along with
their teachers were also significant (p=0.001). In Korogocho, 89% of pupils ‘strongly agreed’ and 1%
‘agreed’ that they got along with their teachers, while in Viwandani, 80% of the pupils ‘strongly agreed’
and 11% ‘agreed’ that they got along with their teachers.

Self-reported pupil effort in school was also significantly (p=0.001) higher in Korogocho with 98%
of pupils strongly agreeing to doing their best in school, compared to 90% in Viwandani. Similarly,
pupils in Korogocho considered their performance to be important to their future. This was significantly
(p=0.001) higher, with 99% strongly agreeing that doing well in school was important for their future,
compared to 94% in Viwandani.

Table 4.4: Perception on individual’s own schooling



Study Site Pupil Sex

Viwandani Korogocho p value Boy Girl p value

In general, I like school a lot

Strong Agree 92 97.82 0.003 94.56 95.7 0.385

Agree 5.09 0.93 3.74 1.99

Not sure/ Disagree 2.91 1.25 1.7 2.32
I get along well with my teachers

Strong Agree 80 89.38 0.001 82.94 87.09 0.345

Agree 11.27 1.56 7.17 4.97

Not sure/Disagree 8.73 9.06 9.9 7.95
I try my best in school

Strong Agree 89.45 98.44 0.001 93.54 95.03 0.682

Agree 8.73 0.62 5.1 3.64

Not sure/Disagree 1.82 0.93 1.36 1.32
Doing well in school is important for
my future

Strong Agree 94.53 99.07 0.001 96.26 97.67 0.345

Agree 5.11 0.31 3.4 1.66

Not sure/Disagree 0.36 0.62 0.34 0.66

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34 Advancing Learning Outcomes and Leadership Skills Baseline Report, August 2016

4.4 Perception on schooling environment
Similar to ecological theorists, capability theorists argue that education of life skills on its own
is insufficient in creating positive behavior among young people. They argue that for the life skills
approach to be effective, the learning environment, which includes the school, the home and the
community, must be taken into consideration as key in enhancing a person’s capability to act (Bakhshi,
Hoffmann, & Radja, 2003). Using the case of India, Dreze and Sen (2002) for instance argue that
while low parental interest and child labor have been cited as some of the most common reasons
why children drop out of school, the schooling environment is in fact the most critical contributor to
students’ demotivation and dropping out of school.

Terming it as the “discouragement effect”, (Dreze & Sen, 2002) argue that children’s initial enthusiasm
towards schooling is depleted by stifling school environments created by alienating curriculums,
inactive classrooms, indifferent teachers and traumatic experiences of corporal punishment. As such,
a poor schooling environment can contribute to negative behavior among young people, and the
schooling environment is therefore critical in motivating students and promoting positive behavior
among young people.

To understand pupils’ perception of their schooling environment, pupils were asked to rate nine
school-environment related attributes, using a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to
5 (strongly disagree). The scores were analyzed to generate mean scores, ranging from 1 (better
school environment) to 5 (worse school environment). Table 4.5 presents the mean scores of pupils’
perceptions of their schooling environment. Significant (p=0.033) differences emerged across the two
sites, with pupils in Korogocho reporting better perception of their school environments (mean = 1.94)
compared to pupils from Viwandani schools (mean = 2.06). No significant differences were observed
between boys and girls or across social economic background. However, higher age of the pupil was
significantly associated with rating the school environment as worse. That is, older pupils were more
likely to rate the school environment as worse compared to younger pupils.

Table 4.5: Perception on schooling environment

Mean Std. Dev Min Max p value

Site

Viwandani 2.06 0.80 1 4.56 0.033

Korogocho 1.94 0.61 1 4.11
Pupil Sex

Boy 2.01 0.70 1 4.56 0.489

Girl 1.97 0.71 1 4.56
Wealth

Poorest 1.96 0.67 1 4.11 0.202

Middle 2.06 0.74 1 4.56

Least poor 1.96 0.70 1 4.56
Age+ 0.05 0.006

+ regression coefficient reported

To assess how well behaved pupils were, seven questions were posed to pupils on whether they had
engaged in different kinds of delinquent behavior in the last four months. In both sites, majority of the
pupils reported that they had never stayed away from home without parental permission (96%), had
never carried a weapon for self-defense (99%) and had never hit or threatened to hit an adult (97%).
In both Viwandani and Korogocho, none of the pupils had sold drugs, while only 1% had delivered or

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77Advancing Learning Outcomes and Leadership Skills Baseline Report, August 2016

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