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TitleAdvances in Tissue Engineering - J. Polak (ICP, 2008) WW
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Contributors
Foreword
Introduction
Part I: Tissue Engineering: Past, Present, and Future
	Chapter 1: An Introduction Robert M. Nerem
		1. Introduction
		2. The Early Years
		3. The 1990s
		4. 2000 to Present
		5. What About the Future?
		6. Concluding Discussion
		Acknowledgements
		References
Part II: Cells for Tissue Engineering
	Chapter 2: A Brief Introduction to Different Cell Types Lee Buttery and Kevin M. Shakesheff
		1. Introduction
		2. Cells and Tissue Engineering
		3. Mature or Primary Cells
		4. Stem Cells
		5. Sources of Stem Cells
			5.1. Adult (somatic) stem cells (ASC)
			5.2. The adult stem cell niche
			5.3. Bone marrow stem cells
			5.4. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
			5.5. Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs)/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
			5.6. Multipotent adult stem cells (MAPCs)
			5.7. ASCs from other tissues
			5.8. Cord blood stem cells and foetal stem cells
			5.9. Embryonic stem cells
			5.10. Epiblast stem cells
		6. Immortalised Cell Lines
		7. Reprogramming
		8. Differentiation of Cells
		9. Regulatory Issues
			9.1. Cells
			9.2. Animal studies
		References
	Chapter 3: Human Embryonic Stem Cells: International Policy and Regulation Megan Allyse and Stephen Minger
		1. Introduction
		2. Controversy
		3. International Guidelines
		4. National Policy Systems
			4.1. India
			4.2. South Korea
			4.3. China
			4.4. United Kingdom
			4.5. United States
		5. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 4: Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Derivation and Culture Emma L. Stephenson, Peter R. Braude and Chris Mason
		1. Introduction
		2. The Emergence of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
			2.1. Regulation of human embryo research
		3. Human Embryonic Stem Cells
			3.1. Definition
			3.2. Embryonic stem cell derivation methods
				3.2.1. Embryonic stem cells without the destruction of embryos
			3.3. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and stem cell derivation
		4. Culture of hESC lines
			4.1. Feeder cells
			4.2. Media composition
				4.2.1. Oxygen tension
		5. Reporting of Derivation
		6. Concluding Remarks
		References
	Chapter 5: Stem Cells Differentiation Pascale V. Guillot and Wei Cui
		1. Introduction
		2. Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells
		3. Somatic Stem Cells
			3.1. Adult mesenchymal stem cells
			3.2. Foetal mesenchymal stem cells
		4. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 6: Marrow Stem Cells Donald G. Phinney
		1. Introduction
		2. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Discovery, Phenotype, and Function
		3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Discovery, Phenotype, and Function
		4. Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Discovery, Phenotype, and Function
		5. A Common Origin for Bone Marrow Stem Cells
		6. Functional Interdependency of Bone Marrow Stem Cells
		7. Summary
		References
	Chapter 7: Cord Blood Stem Cells — Potentials and Realities Colin P. McGuckin and Nicolas Forraz
		1. Introduction to the Concept of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells
		2. Cord Blood Current Clinical Uses
		3. Cord Blood Processing and Cryopreservation
		4. Cord Blood Banking
		5. Cord Blood Research and Where the Future Lies
		References
	Chapter 8: Fat Stem Cells Jeffrey M. Gimble, Bruce A. Bunnell and Farshid Guilak
		1. Introduction
		2. Types of Adipose Tissue
		3. Isolation Procedures
		4. Immunophenotype and Cytokine Profile of ASCs
		5. Immunogenicity of ASCs
		6. Differentiation Potential
			6.1. Adipocyte
			6.2. Cardiac myocytes
			6.3. Chondrocyte
			6.4. Endodermal and ectodermal lineages
			6.5. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells
			6.6. Hematopoietic support
			6.7. Neuronal
			6.8. Osteoblast
			6.9. Skeletal myocyte
		7. Mechanisms of Potential Utility: Genetic Engineering and Gene Delivery
		8. Conclusions and Future Directions
		References
	Chapter 9: Control of Adult Stem Cell Function in Bioengineered Artificial Niches Matthias P. Lutolf and Helen M. Blau
		1. Introduction
		2. Adult Stem Cells Reside in Niches
		3. Common Structures and Components of Stem Cell Niches
		4. Key Functions of Stem Cell Niches
		5. Niches Control the Fate of Individual Stem Cells
		6. The HSC Niche
		7. Prospects for Using Engineered Artificial Niches as Novel Model Systems to Probe and Manipulate Adult Stem Cell Fate
		References
	Chapter 10: Stem Cell Immunology Anthony P. Hollander and David C. Wraith
		1. Why is Stem Cell Immunology Important for Tissue Engineering?
		2. Evolutionary Context of the Mammalian Immune System
		3. Materno-Foetal Tolerance as a Model for Understanding Stem Cell Immune Privilege
			3.1. Low expression by placental cells of MHC-I
			3.2. Absence of MHC-II molecules
			3.3. Synthesis by the placental cells of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)
			3.4. Expression of Fas ligand (FasL)
			3.5. Secretion of soluble immunosuppressive factors
		4. Are Embryonic Stem Cells Immune Privileged?
		5. Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Immune Privileged?
		6. Finding a Way Forward for the Use of Allogeneic Stem Cells
		References
	Chapter 11: Development of a Design of Experiment Methodology: Applications to the Design and Analysis of Experiments Mayasari Lim and Athanasios Mantalaris
		1. Analysis of Factors
		2. Design Strategy
		3. DOE Designs
		4. A DOE Example: Investigating the Influence of Cytokines on Erythropoiesis
		5. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 12: Banking Stem Cell Lines for Future Therapies Glyn N. Stacey and Charles J. Hunt
		1. Introduction
		2. The Rationale for Centralised Banks of Human Cell Lines for Clinical Use
		3. Fundamental Issues for in Vitro Cell Culture
		4. Cell Culture Processes
			4.1. The cell banking process
			4.2. Scaleability of stem cell culture
			4.3. Cryopreservation and low-temperature storage
		5. Quality Assurance and Quality Control
			5.1. Risk from donor selection/harvest
			5.2. Cell Line Master File (CLMF): principles and potential content
			5.3. Ethical issues and the UK model
		6. International Perspectives
			6.1. The “International Stem Cell Banking Initiative”
		7. Future Developments and Expectations
		References
Part III: Materials
	Chapter 13: Synthetic Biomaterials as Cell-Responsive Artificial Extracellular Matrices Matthias P. Lutolf and Jeffrey A. Hubbell
		1. Introduction
		2. ECMs Instruct Cell Fates and Respond to Cell-Secreted Signals
		3. Design Principles for Cell-Responsive Artificial ECMs
			3.1. Selecting biophysically relevant materials structures
			3.2. Selecting mild chemistries
			3.3. Designing responsiveness to cell-secreted biomolecules
			3.4. Designing building block modularity
		4. Implementation: Classes and Applications of Cell-Responsive Artificial ECMs
			4.1. Hybrid protein-polymer and saccharide-polymer systems
			4.2. Hybrid peptide-polymer systems
			4.3. Nanofibrillar-based gels
		5. Future Challenges
		References
	Chapter 14: Bioactive Composite Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Sophie Verrier and Aldo R. Boccaccini
		1. Introduction
		2. Scaffolds Requirements
		3. Composite Materials Approach for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
			3.1. Advantages of composites materials
			3.2. Mechanical properties
			3.3. Fabrication technologies
		4. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation
			4.1. Calcium phosphate-based composites
				4.1.1. HA containing composites
				4.1.2. Other calcium phosphate containing composites
			4.2. Bioactive glass containing composites
				4.2.1. Silicate bioactive glass
				4.2.2. BG containing composites: new developments
		5. Discussion
		6. Conclusions and Future Work
		References
	Chapter 15: Aggregation of Cells Using Biomaterials and Bioreactors Zahia Bayoussef and Kevin M. Shakesheff
		1. Introduction
		2. Cell Adhesion and Natural Cell Aggregation
			2.1. Natural cell aggregation
		3. Methods of Cell Aggregation
			3.1. Aggregation on low-adherence surfaces
			3.2. Aggregation in rotation culture
			3.3. Microgravity culture (hanging drop method)
		4. Synthetic Cell Aggregation
			4.1. Functionalised polymers
				4.1.1. Chitosan
				4.1.2. Modified PEG
				4.1.3. Lactone modified eudragit
			4.2. PLGA nanospheres
			4.3. Lectins and derivatives
			4.4. Chemical cell surface modification
				4.4.1. Biotinylated cell cross-linking
				4.4.2. Intercellular polymeric cross-linker
		5. Cell Aggregation on Scaffolds
		6. Bioreactors and Cell Aggregation
			6.1. Types of bioreactors used in aggregation studies
				6.1.1. Rotating wall vessel
				6.1.2. Spinner flasks
		7. Summary and Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 16: Nanotechnology for Tissue Engineering Jean S. Stephens-Altus and Jennifer L. West
		1. Introduction
		2. Nanostructured Scaffolds
			2.1. Self-assembling scaffold materials
			2.2. Nanocomposites
			2.3. Nanofibers
		3. Nanoparticles for Cellular Imaging
			3.1. Optical imaging strategies
			3.2. Magnetic resonance imaging
			3.3. Bioresponsive probes
		4. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 17: Microscale Technologies for Tissue Engineering Ali Khademhosseini, Yanan Du, Bimal Rajalingam, Joseph P. Vacanti and Robert S. Langer
		1. Introduction
		2. Microscale Technologies for Controlling Stem Cell Fate
			2.1. Regulating stem cell fate by controlling cell shape
			2.2. Microwells for uniform embryoid body culture and control of cell-cell contact
			2.3. Microarrays for directing stem cell fates
			2.4. Microfluidic system for controlling stem cell fate
		3. Microscale Technologies for Engineering Complex Tissues Containing Different Cell Types and Vasculature
			3.1. Microscale technologies for template-based cell assembly into 3D micro-tissues
			3.2. Scaffolds with micro- and nano-topography
			3.3. Microengineered hydrogels for tissue engineering
			3.4. 3D tissue/organ printing
			3.5. Microfluidics for engineering the vasculature
		4. Conclusion
		References
Part IV: Non-Invasive Methods to Monitor Tissue Re-Modelling
	Chapter 18: Biosensors Tony Cass
		1. Introduction to Sensor Technology
		2. The Importance of Mass Transport in Sensor Performance
		3. Electrochemical Biosensors
			3.1. Potentiometric sensors
			3.2. Amperometric biosensors
			3.3. Impedance sensors
		4. Optical Biosensors
			4.1. Fluorescence biosensors
			4.2. Integrated optical devices
			4.3. Plasmonic nanomaterials
		5. Mass Sensors
		6. Cell Sensing Strategies
		7. Tissue Sensing Strategies
		8. Conclusions and Outlook
		References
	Chapter 19: Tissue-Engineering Monitoring Using Microdialysis Zhaohui Li, Olga Boubriak, Jill Urban and Zhanfeng Cui
		1. Introduction
		2. Methodology of Microdialysis
			2.1. Principle of microdialysis
			2.2. Characteristics of probes
			2.3. Recovery of probes
			2.4. Calibration of probes
				2.4.1. In vitro recovery
				2.4.2. Zero-net-flux recovery
				2.4.3. Internal reference recovery
			2.5. Microdialysis sampling for proteins
			2.6. Assessment of probe membrane fouling
			2.7. Microdialysis with different pumping methods
		3. Microdialysis for Tissue Engineering Monitoring — Case Studies
			3.1. Experimental method
			3.2. Internal standard calibration of probes and of membrane fouling
			3.3. Monitoring cell metabolic activities in engineered cartilage
			3.4. Monitoring tissue metabolism in cultured IVD explants
			3.5. Monitoring tissue formation
		4. Summary
		References
	Chapter 20: Characterisation of Tissue Engineering Constructs by Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Micro- Computed Tomography (µCT) Ioan Notingher and Julian R. Jones
		1. Introduction
			1.1. Tissue engineering constructs
			1.2. The need for characterisation
			1.3. Optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy
			1.4. Characterising porous materials in 3D
		2. Principles and Instrumentation
			2.1. Raman spectroscopy
			2.2. X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT)
		3. Applications of Raman Micro-Spectroscopy to Cells
			3.1. Raman spectra of biomolecules and cells
			3.2. Differentiation of stem cells
			3.3. Phenotypic characterisation of cells
			3.4. Bone nodule formation and mineralisation in vitro
		4. Application of µCT to the Quantification of Scaffolds
			4.1. Quantification of open pore networks
			4.2. Monitoring of cells within scaffolds
		5. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 21: Role of Stem Cell Imaging in Regenerative Medicine Gabriella Passacquale and Kishore Bhakoo
		1. Introduction
		2. Ideal Imaging Technology for Non-Invasive Stem Cell Tracking
			2.1. X-ray-based imaging
			2.2. Radionuclide imaging
			2.3. Optical imaging
			2.4. Ultrasound
		3. Non-Invasive Tracking of Stem Cells Using MRI
			3.1. Intracellular MRI contrast agents
			3.2. MRI tracking of stem cells in the heart
		4. Role of Imaging in Stem Cell-Based Therapy for the Central Nervous System
		5. Multimodality
		6. Conclusions
		References
Part V: Biotechnology Sector
	Chapter 22: Lessons Learnt Nancy L. Parenteau, Susan J. Sullivan, Kelvin G. M. Brockbank and Janet Hardin Young
		1. Background: The Marriage of Biology and Engineering
		2. The Evolving Emphasis from Engineering to Biology
		3. Vascular Tissue Engineering
		4. Cartilage
		5. Extracorporeal Devices
		6. Skin
		7. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 23: The Promise of Stem Cells: A Venture Capital Perspective Cathy Prescott
		1. Introduction
		2. Venture Capital — Balancing Risk
		3. The Value Proposition
		4. “Watch and Wait”
		5. The European Regulatory Environment
		6. An Evolving Patent Landscape
		7. Future Prospects?
		References
Part VI: Tissue Engineering Products
	Chapter 24: Cell Expansion, Cell Encapsulation, 3D Cultures Julia M. Polak and Athanasios Mantalaris
		1. Introduction
		2. Controlled Differentiation
		3. Generation of Clinically Relevant Number of Cells in 3D Cultures as an Integrated and Scalable Process
		4. Encapsulation
		5. Bioprocessing for Regenerative Medicine
			5.1. Bioreactors
			5.2. Stem cell bioprocessing
		6. Discussion
		References
	Chapter 25: Bioreactor Engineering: Regenerating the Dynamic Cell Microenvironment Tal Dvir and Smadar Cohen
		1. Tissue Engineering — The Introduction of 3D Cell Cultures
		2. Mass Transport Challenges in 3D Cell Cultures
		3. First Generation of Tissue Engineering Bioreactors
		4. Perfusion Bioreactors — Theory and Practice
		5. Examples of Perfusion Bioreactors in TE
		6. Bioreactors Providing Physical Signals
			6.1. Mechanical stimuli
			6.2. Electrical stimuli
		7. Microfabricated Bioreactors
		8. Concluding Remarks and Future Aspects
		References
	Chapter 26: UK Regulatory Issues: The View from the Researcher Caroline Munro and Neil Harris
		1. Introduction
		2. The Product Life Cycle of a Cell-Based Therapeutic
		3. Stage 1: Procurement — The Obtaining of Cells or Tissue Components from Donors Under cGCP
		4. Stage 2: Analysis — Initial Isolation, Screening, Characterisation and Manipulation of Cells/Other Components and Storage
		5. Stage 3: Confirmed Proof of Product and Process — Initial to Final Screening for Potential Use
		6. Stage 4: Product Manufacturing — Production of Clinical Grade Material Under cGMP
		7. Stage 5: Pre-Clinical Trials — Assessment of Safety and Performance for Regulatory Submission
			7.1. Regulatory studies
			7.2. In vivo pre-clinical models
		8. Stage 6: Clinical Trials — Clinical Assessments of Product Safety and Performance
			8.1. Manufacturing
			8.2. Pre-trial documents
			8.3. Trial designs
		9. Stage 7: Launch — Commercially Available Product
		10. Stage 8: Post-Market — Ongoing Processes Following Commercialisation of Product
		11. Regulations, Guidelines and Codes of Practice
		References
			European legislation
			Guidelines and codes of practice
Part VII: Tissue Repair
	Chapter 27: Stem Cell Therapy: Past, Present, and Future Frédéric Baron and Rainer Storb
		1. Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
			1.1. Discovery of hematopoietic stem cells
			1.2. The beginnings of hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans
			1.3. Allogeneic HCT after high-dose conditioning
				1.3.1. Non-malignant disease
				1.3.2. Hematological malignancies
			1.4. Graft-versus-tumor effects
			1.5. Alternative donors
			1.6. Sources of hematopoietic stem cell for clinical use
			1.7. Allogeneic HCT after low-dose conditioning
		2. Plasticity of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Lessons Learnt from a Canine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
		3. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
		4. Embryonic Stem Cells
		5. Future of Stem Cell Therapy
			5.1. HCT: minimizing pain, maximizing gain
			5.2. Stem cells in regenerative medicine
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Chapter 28: Tissue Engineered Skin Comes of Age? Sheila MacNeil
		1. To What Extent can Tissue Engineered Skin Deliver Normal Skin Structure and Function for Clinical Use?
		2. Which Patients can Benefit from Tissue Engineered Products?
		3. History of the Development of Tissue Engineered Skin for Burns Injuries
		4. Development of Tissue Engineered Skin for Chronic Wounds
		5. Development of Tissue Engineered Skin for Reconstructive Surgery
		6. The Design Process for Tissue Engineered Products
		7. Keratinocyte Stem Cells — Where are We?
		8. Clinical and Future Development Issues
		9. Laboratory Uses of Tissue Engineered Skin
		10. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 29: Liver RepairNatasa Levicar, Madhava Pai and Nagy A. Habib
		1. Introduction
		2. Haematopoietic Stem Cells and Liver Regeneration
		3. Clinical Studies
		4. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 30: Tissue Engineering for Tooth Regeneration Ivan. A. Diakonov and Paul Sharpe
		1. Tooth Development and Morphology
		2. Stem Cells in the Tooth
			2.1. Dental pulp stem cells
			2.2. Periodontal ligament and dental follicle stem cells
			2.3. Dental epithelial stem cells
		3. Two Strategies for Tissue Engineering Tooth Germs De Novo
			3.1. Scaffold-based roots
			3.2. Reproducing embryonic tooth germs for implantation
		4. Challenges
		5. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 31: Urogenital Repair Anthony Atala
		1. Introduction
		2. Tissue Engineering Strategies for Urogenital Repair
			2.1. The use of cells in urogenital tissue engineering applications
				2.1.1. Stem cells
				2.1.2. Therapeutic cloning
			2.2. Biomaterials for genitourinary tissue construction
			2.3. Vascularization of engineered tissue
		3. Tissue Engineering of Specific Urologic and Genital Structures
			3.1. Urethra
			3.2. Bladder
				3.2.1. Tissue expansion for bladder augmentation
				3.2.2. Seromuscular grafts and de-epithelialized bowel segments
				3.2.3. Matrices for bladder regeneration
				3.2.4. Bladder replacement using tissue engineering
			3.3. Ureters
		4. Kidney
			4.1. Ex vivo functioning renal units
			4.2. Creation of functional renal structures in vivo
		5. Genital Tissues
			5.1. Reconstruction of corporal smooth muscle
			5.2. Engineered penile prostheses
			5.3. Female genital tissues
		6. Other Applications of Genitourinary Tissue Engineering
			6.1. Fetal tissue engineering
			6.2. Injectable therapies
		7. Conclusion
		References
Part VIII: Cardiac Repair
	Chapter 32: Basic Science Sian E. Harding
		1. Introduction
			1.1. Adult stem cells — bone marrow-derived stem cells
			1.2. Adult stem cells — cardiac
			1.3. Adult stem cells — skeletal myoblasts
			1.4. Adult stem cells — others
			1.5. Embryonic stem cells
		2. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 33: Cardiac Repair Clinical Trials Amanda Green and Eric Alton
		1. Introduction
		2. A New Treatment Option
		3. Acute Myocardial Infarction
			3.1. Skeletal myoblasts
			3.2. Autologous bone marrow cells
			3.3. Granulocyte cell stem cell factor (G-CSF)
		4. Chronic Ischaemic Heart Disease
			4.1. Skeletal myoblasts
			4.2. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells
			4.3. G-CSF in chronic ischaemic heart disease
		5. Which is the Optimal Method of Delivery?
		6. The Future for Clinical Trials
		References
	Chapter 34: Myocardial Recovery Following LVAD Support Robert S. George and Emma J. Birks
		1. Introduction
		2. Overview of LVADs
		3. LVAD and Myocardial Recovery — Clinical Implications
			3.1. Monitoring recovery
			3.2. Improvements in exercise capacity
			3.3. Haemodynamic improvements
			3.4. Electrocardiographic improvements
			3.5. Quality of life
			3.6. Device explantation for recovery
		4. Remodelling versus Reverse Remodelling
			4.1. The effects of unloading on myocyte size and structural proteins
			4.2. Reverse remodelling and calcium regulation
		5. Conclusion
		References
Part IX: Osteoarticular Repair
	Chapter 35: Animal Models Elizabeth A. Horner, Jennifer Kirkham and Xuebin B. Yang
		1. Introduction
		2. The Choice of Animal
			2.1. Species
			2.2. Size
			2.3. Age
		3. In Vivo Models for Bone and Cartilage Tissue Engineering
			3.1. The ectopic subcutaneous implant model
			3.2. The intramuscular implant model
			3.3. The diffusion chamber model
			3.4. The chorioallantoic membrane assay
			3.5. In vivo bioreactors
			3.6. In vivo defect models
				3.6.1. Bone defect models
				3.6.2. The cartilage defect model
		4. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 36: In Vitro 3D Human Tissue Models for Osteochondral Diseases Sourabh Ghosh and David L. Kaplan
		1. Introduction
		2. Factors Governing the Simulation of Tissue Microenvironments
			2.1. Role of scaffold
			2.2. Role of Bioreactor
			2.3. Cells
			2.4. Soluble factors
		3. Osteochondral Tissue
			3.1. State of the art: 3D osteochondral tissue systems
			3.2. Model of osteoarthritis
			3.3. Gravitational models for bone loss
			3.4. Osteoporosis model
		4. Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 37: Application of Tissue Engineering for Craniofacial Reconstruction Deepak M. Gupta, Matthew D. Kwan, Bethany J. Slater and Michael T. Longaker
		1. Introduction
		2. Craniosynostosis: A Case for Mechanisms Underlying Bone Formation
		3. Distraction Osteogenesis: Endogenous Tissue Engineering
		4. Cellular-Based Tissue Engineering: Regenerative Medicine
		5. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 38: Clinical Trials Anne K. Haudenschild and Marc H. Hedrick
		1. Introduction to Osteoarticular Repair
		2. Impact
		3. Current Medical Treatment of OA
			3.1. Pharmacological intervention
			3.2. Surgical intervention
			3.3. Cell therapy
			3.4. Shortcomings of current treatments
		4. Current Trials
			4.1. ChondroCelect ® [TiGenix]
			4.2. Chondrogen™ [Osiris]
			4.3. BST-CarGel® [BioSyntech Canada Inc]
		5. Promising Future Technologies
		6. Discussion
		References
Part X: Lung Repair
	Chapter 39: Tissue Engineering for the Respiratory Epithelium: Is There a Future for Stem Cell Therapy in the Lung? Valérie Besnard and Jeffrey A. Whitsett
		1. Introduction: The Challenges Facing Cell-Based Therapy for Treatment of Lung Disease
		2. Lung Morphogenesis
			2.1. Integration of signaling and transcriptional pathways during lung formation
			2.2. Multiple cell types in the lung
			2.3. Concept of unique cellular niches within the lung
			2.4. Epithelial cell plasticity
			2.5. Cell proliferation
		3. Sources of Stem Cells
			3.1. Definition of stem cells
			3.2. Programming of embryonic stem cells
			3.3. Potential utility of mesenchymal stem cells
		4. Do Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute to Repair?
			4.1. Tumorigenic and mutational potentials of stem cells
			4.2. Delivery of stem cells into the lung
				4.2.1. Vascular delivery of stem cells
				4.2.2. Intratracheal delivery of stem cells
				4.2.3. Recruitment of MSCs to tumors
		5. Use of Intrinsic Pulmonary Progenitor Cells
		6. The Hope of Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of Lung Disease
		7. Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 40: The Artificial Lung Andreas Nikolas Maurer and Georg Matheis
		1. Introduction
		2. Mechanical Ventilation
		3. Development of Membrane Ventilators (Artificial Lungs, Medical Devices)
		4. Near Future Tasks to Enhance Membrane Ventilators
		5. From Medical Devices to Biohybrid Lungs
		6. Organoid Structures
		7. Conclusion
		References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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P552tp.indd 1 7/24/08 4:16:11 PM

Advances in

TISSUE
ENGINEERING

Page 946

paracrine 679, 683
patent landscape 491, 492, 498, 499
PEBBLES 392
penile prosthesis 668
peptide 336, 337, 342
peptide-polymer 266–268
perfusion bioreactor 517, 522, 524–528
peripheral blood mononuclear cell 569, 571
placenta 658
planar waveguide 387
plasticity 570, 571, 576
pluripotency 685, 689, 888, 892
poly(ethyleneglycol) 393
poly(propylene fumarate) 338
porcine hepatocyte 480
positron emission tomography (PET) 446,

447, 449, 453, 454, 456
preimplantation genetic diagnosis 70, 71
process map 243, 537, 539, 553, 554
product life-cycle 538–541, 547, 555
protein

adsorption 381, 393
marker 411
polymer 263–265, 269

public private partnership 492, 495
pulmonary 861, 863–871, 873–875,

877–879
pumping method 408, 409, 415

quality of life 735, 737, 744
quantum dot 333–335, 340, 342, 385, 386
quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) 391

Raman spectroscopy 376, 385, 390, 421,
423, 424, 426–428, 432–434, 438

Randles cell 384
ratiometric 385
reconstructive surgery 593, 595, 596, 603,

605, 608
regeneration 3–5, 7, 8, 10
regenerative medicine 123, 135, 137, 821,

825, 830, 831, 834
registry 246
regulation 537–539, 541, 542, 544, 546, 547,

550, 551–555
regulatory framework 492, 497

relative recovery 405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 415
remodelling 741, 745, 746, 748, 749

reverse 741, 745, 748, 749
reproductive cloning 658, 659, 667
review 363
risk assessment 243

Sauerbrey equation 391
scaffold 279–288, 295–304, 421–426,

430, 434, 435, 437, 438, 470, 472, 477,
478, 657, 659, 662–665, 667–669

scaleable process 505
scale-up principle 509
self-assembly 265, 269, 271, 336, 337, 339
SERCA2a 749
serotonin 382
serum 234, 235, 237, 238
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 381
skeletal muscle 145
skeletal myoblast 679, 680, 684, 685
skin 469, 481–483, 593–597, 599–613

construct 469, 482
smooth muscle 148, 153
soft lithography 350, 351, 359, 361
somatic cell nuclear transfer 47
somatic stem cell 83, 84, 86
stability 230, 233, 234, 236
standardisation 229, 230, 241
standards 77
static culture 509
stem cell 15–29, 31–33, 175–183, 185–189,

349, 351, 352, 353, 355–357, 363, 470–472,
474–476, 480, 503, 505–507, 509, 512,
657–659, 670, 695–698, 710, 713–715,
718, 720, 722, 723, 849, 861, 863–865,
868–879

bank 229, 232, 236, 241, 243, 248
bioprocessing 503, 509, 512
cryopreservation 123, 129, 131
expansion
line 229, 232–235, 237, 238, 242, 243,

246, 247
technology 6, 10

storage 230, 239, 241, 242, 245
subcutaneous implant 763, 764, 766–768
surface modification 321

907

Index

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