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TitleAdvances in Fire and Process Safety: Select Proceedings of HSFEA 2016
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size9.6 MB
Total Pages346
Table of Contents
                            Preface
Acknowledgements
Contents
Editors and Contributors
1 Practical Aspects of Application of Bayesian Networks to Cause and Effect Modeling in Process Safety
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Basics of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Event Tree Analysis (ETA), and Bow Tie
		2.1 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
		2.2 Bow Tie Analysis
		2.3 Bayesian Network (BN)
	3 Mapping of FT and ET and Bow Tie to Bayesian Networks
	4 Practical Aspects in Mapping FT and ET to BN
		4.1 Factored BN
		4.2 Use of Equations
		4.3 Use of Probability Distributions
		4.4 Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN)
		4.5 Noisy-OR/AND Gates
			4.5.1 Noisy-OR Gate
			4.5.2 Noisy-AND Gate
			4.5.3 Noisy Max
	5 Conclusion
	References
2 Application of Computational Analysis for Risk Assessment of Chlorine Gas from Tank in Chlorine Production Unit: A Case Study
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 A Theoretical Basis
	3 Computational Technique
	4 Results and Discussions
	5 Conclusion
	References
3 Modeling of Gas Flow Within the Shale Fracture Network
	Abstract
	1 Introduction: General History
	2 Mass Balance Flow Equation for the Gas Flow in the Shale Matrix
		2.1 Assumptions
			2.1.1 Mass Balance Equation
			2.1.2 Discretization Method
	3 Pressure Variation in Matrix Blocks
	4 Simulation of Shale Gas Reservoir Model
	5 Results
		5.1 Shale Reservoir Model
		5.2 CMG-IMEX Simulator Model
	6 Conclusion and Future Work
	References
4 Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused by Domino Accidents in Chemical Process Industries
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Problem Definition
	3 Maximum-Credible Accident Scenarios (MCAS)
		3.1 Methodology for MCAS
	4 Case Study: Oil Movement and Storage Section
	5 Conclusion
	References
5 An Assessment of the Appropriateness of the Prescribed “Safe Distances” for Siting Hazardous Process Units to Prevent Domino Effect
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Methodology
	3 Results and Discussion
	4 Conclusion
	5 Acknowledgement
	References
6 Evaluating the Functionality of Industrial Emergency Operations Center (EOC) by Weighted Scoring Technique
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
		2.1 Configuration and Layout
		2.2 Communication Facilities
		2.3 Stationery and Office Supplies
		2.4 Welfare
		2.5 Procedures and Audits
	3 Weighted Scoring Technique
	4 Weighted Scoring of EOC
	5 Conclusion
	Appendix: EOC Assessment Checklist
	References
7 Development of Risk Acceptance Criteria for Indian Railways
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Methodology
	3 Results and Discussions
	4 Conclusion
	References
8 Enhancing Safety Culture in Cement Industry Using Behavior-Based Safety Technique
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
		1.1 Need for BBS
		1.2 History of BBS
	2 Methodology
	3 Developing Safety Performance Matrix
	4 Result and Discussion
	5 Conclusion
	References
9 Quantitative Estimation of Risk to Community Near an Ammonia Rail Wagon Loading Facility
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Risk Estimation Methodology
		2.1 Hazard Identification
		2.2 Scenarios Selection
		2.3 Consequence Analysis
		2.4 Incident Frequency Estimation
	3 Results and Discussion
	4 Conclusion
	References
10 Network Guided Robot
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Hardware Developments
		2.1 Proposed System
		2.2 Wireless Node
	3 Software Development
		3.1 Algorithm for PID Control of Robot with PSO Optimization
		3.2 Controller Architecture for PID Control of Robot
		3.3 Implementation of PID with PSO Optimization
	4 Circuit and Simulation
	5 Experimental Setup
	6 Results and Conclusion
	References
11 Case Study on Vapour Cloud Explosions (Buncefield and Jaipur Explosion)—A Review
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Storage Tank Fires and VCEs
	3 Buncefield Fire, 11 December, 2005
		3.1 About the Terminal
		3.2 How It Started?
		3.3 The Safety Features of the Tank
		3.4 The Timeline of the Disaster
		3.5 Control Measures Recommended
		3.6 Legal Impacts of the Incident
	4 Jaipur Fire, 29 October, 2009
		4.1 Description of the Accident
		4.2 Lessons Learnt from the Accident
	5 Comparison Between the Incidents
	6 Summary and Conclusion
	Acknowledgements
	References
12 Broadband Stacked Microstrip Antenna with Genetically Designed Patches
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Design Procedure
	3 Results and Discussion
	4 Conclusion
	References
13 A Novel Distance Authentication Mechanism to Prevent the Online Transaction Fraud
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Different Frameworks and Issues
		2.1 Different Frameworks
		2.2 Issues with Existing Techniques
	3 Proposed Mechanism
		3.1 Integral Part of the Mechanism
		3.2 Minimum Requirements
		3.3 Authentication Procedure
	4 Case Studies of Online Transaction Fraud and Impact of Propose Mechanism on Online Transaction Fraud
		4.1 Case Study: Phone Fraud
		4.2 Case Study: Skimming Card
		4.3 Implementation of Proposed Mechanism on Both the Above-Mentioned Cases
	5 Conclusion and Future Work
	References
14 Fire Safety Management in India: A Review
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Recent Views
	3 Objectives of Fire Safety Management
	4 The Fire Safety Plan
	5 New Buildings and Integration with the “Engineering” Approach
	6 Existing Buildings
	7 Conclusion
	References
15 Analysis of Fire Protection Facilities in Hospital Buildings
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Methodology
	3 Evaluation and Outcomes
	4 Solutions
		4.1 Evacuation Duties
	5 Summary
	References
16 Need for Better High-Rise Building Evacuation Practices
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Required Safe Evacuation Time (RSET)/Available Safe Evacuation Time (ASET)
	3 Available Egress Components and Its Challenges
		3.1 Stairs
		3.2 Evacuation Elevators
		3.3 Sky-Bridges
		3.4 Refuge Floor
		3.5 Alternative Means of Escape
	4 Current High-Rise Building Evacuation Strategy
		4.1 Total Building Evacuation
		4.2 Phased Evacuation
		4.3 Stay-in-Place Approach
		4.4 Delayed Evacuation
	5 Computer Modeling for Fire
		5.1 Fire Modeling
		5.2 Egress Modeling
		5.3 Detector Response Models
		5.4 Fire Endurance Models
		5.5 Miscellaneous Models
	6 Conclusion
	References
17 Design and Analysis of Firewater Network for a Typical Onshore Gas Processing Plant
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
		1.1 Gas Processing Plant
	2 Methodology
		2.1 Fire Zone Delineation
		2.2 Firewater Demand Calculation
		2.3 Hydrant and Monitor Layout
			2.3.1 Hydrants
			2.3.2 Monitors
		2.4 Firewater Network Hydraulics
		2.5 Deluge System Hydarulics
	3 Results and Discussion
		3.1 Fire Zone Delineation
		3.2 Firewater Demand Calculation
		3.3 Hydrant and Monitor Layout
		3.4 Firewater Network Hydraulics
		3.5 Deluge System Hydraulics
			3.5.1 Deluge System Hydraulics for Gas Compressor [3–5]
			3.5.2 Deluge System Hydraulics for Flare KO Drum
	4 Conclusion
	References
18 Swing Tower of Loader Backhoe Arm for Dynamics and Stress Analysis by Modeling and Simulation
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Modeling Parameters of Swing Tower
	3 Results and Discussion
	4 Conclusion
	References
19 Recent Development in Machine Safeguarding for Protecting Humans from Complicated Machines
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Methodology
	3 Results and Discussion
	4 Conclusion
	References
20 Application of Rapid Tooling for Vacuum Forming to Reduce Cycle Time
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Literature Survey
	3 Methodology
		3.1 Transient Thermal Structural Analysis
	4 Results and Discussion
	5 Conclusion
	References
21 Design and Implementation of On-Site Emergency Planning for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Utilizing Automobile Industries
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Types of Emergency
	3 Objectives of the On-site Plan
	4 Legal Provisions Applicable for Preparing On-site Plan
	5 Main Elements of On-Site Emergency Plans
	6 Consequence Analysis for LPG Bullet
	7 Results of Thermal Radiation Distance Due to Fire
	8 Emergency Evacuation Diagram
	9 Conclusion
	References
22 Use of QRA to Manage SIMOPS Operations
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Detailed Approaches
		2.1 Plant Sitting and Layout Decision—Design Stage
		2.2 Quantitative Risk Assessment—QRA
		2.3 Emergency Escape, Rescue Arrangements
	3 SIMOPS MOPO Matrix
	4 Conclusions
	References
23 Correlating the Factors of Human Error and Behavior-Based Safety Using Pareto Analysis and BBS Observation Application
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Literature Review
	3 Methodology
		3.1 Pareto Analysis
		3.2 BBS Observation Checklists
		3.3 PHP Language and BBSO App
	4 Results and Discussion
		4.1 Incident Analysis
		4.2 Critical Stages and Factors—Pareto Analysis
		4.3 Behavior-Based Safety Observation
	5 Findings and Recommendations
		5.1 Generic Recommendations
		5.2 Specific Recommendations
	6 Summary and Conclusion
	References
24 An Accident Vulnerability Index Based on Fuzzy Logic
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Methodology
		2.1 Evaluating the Vulnerability of Land Use/Land Coverage
		2.2 Evaluating the Vulnerability of Human Population
		2.3 Evaluating the Vulnerability of an Area Around an Industry
	3 Application of the Methodology
		3.1 Evaluating the Vulnerability of Land Use/Land Coverage
		3.2 Evaluating the Vulnerability of Human Population
		3.3 Evaluating the Total Vulnerability of an Area Around an Industry
	4 Conclusion
	5 Acknowledgement
25 IoT- and NDT-Based Bridge Risk Assessment and Identification
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
	3 Hardware
		3.1 Internal Crack Measurement
		3.2 External Crack Measurement
		3.3 Receiver Section
	4 Software
		4.1 Internal Crack Measurement
		4.2 External Crack Measurement
	5 Component Description
	6 Result and Discussion
	7 Future Scope
	References
26 Performance Evaluation of Rectangular Fins by Modeling and Simulations
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Modeling of the System
		2.1 Heat Dissipation
		2.2 Fin Effectiveness
		2.3 Temperature at the End of the Fin
		2.4 Fin Efficiency
	3 Result and Discussion
	4 Discussion of Result
	5 Conclusion
	References
27 Design of Trajectory and Perturbation Analysis for Satellite Orbital Parameters
	Abstract
	1 Introduction
	2 Dynamics of Orbits
		2.1 Orbit Geometry
		2.2 Elliptical Orbits
		2.3 Circular, Parabolic, and Hyperbolic Orbits
	3 Perturbations of Orbits
		3.1 The Flattening of the Earth
		3.2 Atmospheric Drag
		3.3 Solar and Lunar Gravity Perturbation
	4 Trajectories
		4.1 Hohmann Transfer
		4.2 Patched Conic Approximation (PCA) Method
	5 Results
	6 Conclusion
	References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Springer Transactions in Civil
and Environmental Engineering

N. A. Siddiqui
S. M. Tauseef
S. A. Abbasi
Ali S. Rangwala Editors

Advances
in Fire and
Process Safety
Select Proceedings of HSFEA 2016

Page 2

Springer Transactions in Civil
and Environmental Engineering

Page 173

1 Introduction

The main motive of introducing the online transaction is to perform transaction
from anywhere, i.e., without going to point of sale or financial institution and
anytime at the customer’s convenience using their credential. This comfort has a
heavy cost in terms of online transaction frauds. Consequences of these frauds are
loss of money, trust, and effort [1]. Fraudster always tries to commit fraud in
different ways to escape being nabbed. To prevent the online transaction frauds,
various authentication techniques [2–4] and fraud prevention techniques [5–23]
have already been developed. Although many security measures exist and different
systems adapt different technique, committing online transaction fraud are
increasing at alarming rate. In view of this, the present work proposes a novel
authentication technique before committing the valid online transaction. This paper
is divided into four sections. Section 2 contains different frameworks and issues
related to authentication for online transaction. In Sect. 3, author proposes a new
global positioning system (GPS)-based authentication technique using smart phone.
Section 4 contains the case studies of online transaction fraud and impact of pro-
pose mechanism on these case studies. Section 5 contains the conclusion and future
work.

2 Different Frameworks and Issues

2.1 Different Frameworks

There are various techniques implemented to prevent the online transaction fraud.
These techniques are broadly classified in two ways:

Authentication before the Commit of the Transaction

Two-factor authentication or multifactor authentication is a prevalent mechanism
that adds some additional steps to the current procedure of authentication [24–26].
The main aim of multifactor authentication is to confirm that only authenticated
user could perform transaction and prevent the unauthorized user. Earlier, one
factor uses the static information of user credential such as password which is
provided by the user during each transaction and this static information can be
hacked. As a result, an unauthorized user can commit the fraud. For making
transaction more secure, two and multifactors of different type have been intro-
duced. The information for second or third factor is provided by the user, and the
value of these factors is dynamic in nature, i.e., on every transaction it gets changed.
Second or multifactor authentication such as one-time password, visual cryptog-
raphy, fingerprint, graphical password, SMS, security tokens, and smart phone
authentication is used in various online transaction applications.

158 V. Khattri and D. K. Singh

Page 174

Kulat et al. [2] implemented a novel approach for preventing online transaction
fraud, i.e., dual-level security mechanism using OTP keeping in mind the comfort
of user. In this mechanism, authentication is implemented based on cookies on a
user machine and OTP generation. The study of Jamdar et al. [3] implemented a
secure authentication mechanism of using fingerprint to detect online transaction
fraud. As per research, during authentication of fingerprint phase, fingerprint will be
matched with the previously stored pattern; if match not found then transaction is
considered as suspicious, and this suspicious fingerprint is recorded to identify the
fraud in future. The paper of Akole et al. [4] implemented a secure transaction using
visual cryptography for detection of fraud during online transaction. As per
research, the authentication image is broken into number of shares. Separately
shared image reveals no data, but when you combine these separate images, by
stacking the share, then secret image is reconstructed and reveals data, and this data
is used for authentication.

Authentication during the Commit of the Transaction

To validate the transaction to be genuine during the commit of the transaction,
various techniques are used such as artificial neural network [5–11], hidden Markov
model [12–15], genetic [16–18], Bayesian [19, 20] artificial immune system [21,
22], data mining [23]. The study of Agrawal et al. [12] implemented fraud detection
by analyzing the spending behavior and shopping behavior of the customer and
classify the pattern of behavior of the customer using hidden Markov model and
then using genetic algorithm to find the fraudulent transaction. The study of Behera
et al. [5] analyzed the transaction pattern and using fuzzy c-means clustering
algorithm, and classified it. These patterns compare the current transaction with
previously stored transaction to find the fraudulent transaction. Singh et al. [19]
implemented Bayesian learning to classify the current transaction into fraudulent or
non-fraudulent transaction by considering the parameter such as location and
spending behavior. This spending behavior is classified using k-means clustering
algorithm and detected the fraudulent transaction. The study of Renuga Devi et al.
[27] implemented the Naïve Bayesian classifiers and random forest approach. In
this approach, author analyzed the behavior of customer in terms of transaction for
fraudulent pattern.

2.2 Issues with Existing Techniques

There are some flaws or gray areas in existing techniques, in which improvements
are required. Therefore, researchers have to find new techniques or upgrade existing
techniques. Research quoted some cases which have some issue in existing
techniques.

A Novel Distance Authentication Mechanism to Prevent … 159

Page 345

Fig. 19 Lunar transfer

Fig. 20 Lunar transfer from Moon

Design of Trajectory and Perturbation Analysis … 335

Page 346

6 Conclusion

This paper is mainly focused how to maintain the orientation of satellite in low
Earth orbit (LEO) from perturbation and also reduce the orbital decay and increase
the lifetime of the satellite and various perturbations like lunar gravity and atmo-
spheric drag will be considered and will be compared with the ideal cases. This
perturbation force is affecting the satellite from the original orbit. Then will affect
the Keplerian elements. This variation is called as secular variation might be less
than orbital period or greater than orbital period. This study states for low Earth
orbit satellite have more aerodynamic drag and gravitational attraction due to Earth,
and high Earth orbit causes more force due to moon attraction and magnetic effect
and flattering of earth.

References

1. Anderson, John D. 2004. Introduction to flight. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-282569-3.
2. Wertz, J.R. 1978. Spacecraft attitude determination and control. Kluwer.
3. Bate, Mueller, White. 1971. Fundamentals of astrodynamics. Dover.
4. Perry, W.R. 1967. Orbital mechanics. In Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical

Engineers, 7th ed, ed. Theodore Baumeister, 11:151–52. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN
0-07-142867-4.

5. Thomson, W.T. 1961. Introduction to space dynamics. Dover.
6. Fellenz, D.W. 1967. Atmospheric entry. In Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical

Engineers, 7th ed, ed. Theodore Baumeister, 11:155–58. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN
0-07-142867-4.

7. Kromis, A.J. 1967. Powered-Flight-trajectory analysis. In Marks’ standard handbook for
mechanical engineers, 7th ed, ed. Theodore Baumeister, 11:154–55. New York: McGraw Hill.
ISBN 0-07-142867-4.

8. Russell, J.W. 1967. Lunar and interplanetary flight mechanics. In Marks’ Standard Handbook
for Mechanical Engineers, 7th ed, ed. Theodore Baumeister 11:152–54. New York: McGraw
Hill. ISBN 0-07-142867-4.

336 M. Raja et al.

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