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TitleAccelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures
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LanguageEnglish
File Size7.6 MB
Total Pages184
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Accelerating Market
Transformation for
High-Performance
Building Enclosures
State of market, policy developments,
and lessons learned from the Passive
House movement

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ho

to
: S

on
ia

Z
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ar
i

Tom-Pierre Frappé-Sénéclauze | Dylan Heerema | Karen Tam Wu

September 2016

Page 2

Pembina Institute Accelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures | ii

Accelerating Market
Transformation for High-
Performance Building
Enclosures
State of market, policy developments, and lessons
learned from the Passive House movement
Tom-Pierre Frappé-Sénéclauze � Dylan Heerema � Karen Tam Wu
September 2016; revised May 2017




Editor: Roberta Franchuk
Cover Photo: Salus Clementine, Ottawa. Photo

by Sonia Zouari.

©2016 The Pembina Institute

All rights reserved. Permission is granted to
reproduce all or part of this publication for non-

commercial purposes, as long as you cite the
source.

Recommended citation: Frappé-Sénéclauze,

Tom-Pierre et. al. Accelerating Market
Transformation for High-Performance Building

Enclosures: State of market, policy developments,
and lessons learned from the Passive House

movement. The Pembina Institute, 2016.

The Pembina Institute
219 19 Street NW
Calgary, AB

Canada T2N 2H9
Phone: 403-269-3344

Additional copies of this publication may be

downloaded from the Pembina Institute website,
www.pembina.org.

Page 92

Cooling and the risk of overheating

Pembina Institute Accelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures | 82

and heat transfer through the enclosure through passive cooling strategies will reduce the size
of equipment needed, its annual energy use, and its demand on the grid during peak cooling
periods. In some cases, cooling equipment can be reduced to a few mini-split air source heat

pumps combined with an energy recovery ventilator (ERV), which ensures proper ventilation
while dehumidifying and cooling incoming outdoor air.

Box 9. Passive cooling strategies in high-rise buildings

Some of the passive strategies outlined above are more difficult to implement in high-rise

buildings, but alternatives generally exist. Overhangs would need to be strong enough to resist

high winds and can complicate access for window washing. Their protuberance might also clash

with the desired visual effect of a clear surface. In these cases, exterior blinds might be a better

alternative. Low solar heat gain glass is a practical and cost-effective measure and should be

considered, particularly in south-facing units. Dynamic glazing systems, which can change tint (via

application of a small electrical current) based on light and temperature, or on demand, are in

various stages of development and market readiness and could provide another alternative.196

Opportunities for airflow cooling by cross ventilation may be complicated by the fact that units

may only have access to one side of the building. On the other hand, the additional height also

offers greater opportunities for wind-driven ventilation, as wind increases with height and

distance from other large structures. Taller structures also provide the opportunity for stack-

effect driven ventilation, but this can cause issues with imbalances in ventilation between

suites.197

It is not so much the lack of options but the constant effort to minimize construction and design

costs that mean that passive cooling strategies are often overlooked in high-rise construction.

Natural ventilation in these larger buildings will require more detailed dynamic analysis, but

offers opportunities to reduce both fan power and cooling loads. The fact that overheating in

south-facing units is very common in curtain-wall buildings, many of which feature floor-to-ceiling

windows, highlights the need for greater integration of passive cooling strategies, including the

need for better enclosure insulation and for operable windows.xxxi,198


xxxi Parallel opening and top-tilt windows, in particular, can be an effective and safe source of ventilation in tall
buildings.

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Cooling and the risk of overheating

Pembina Institute Accelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures | 83

6.2 Standards for thermal comfort
Standards for thermal comfort such as AHSRAE 55 and the European equivalent EN 15251 offer
methods for assessing thermal comfort and the risk of overheating in buildings at the design
stage. The method varies depending on whether the building is conditioned or free-running.

For conditioned buildings, the “predicted mean vote” method estimates the percentage of

occupants who would rate the building as comfortable for particular combinations of air
temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity, air speed, metabolic rate, and
clothing insulation. Different tolerances are set for different classes of buildings depending on
their expectation for thermal comfort.xxxii,199 This method treats all occupants the same,
disregarding their capacity to actively adapt to adjust to different thermal environment, and

their possible different climatic preferences. It basically states that the indoor temperature
should not change as the seasons do, nor vary depending on where you are in the world.

In contrast, adaptive thermal comfort models are based on the principle that an individual’s

thermal expectations and preferences are determined by their experience of recent (outdoor)
temperatures and a range of contextual factors, including their capacity to control their
environment through means such as clothing, operable windows, fans, personal heaters, and
sun shades. Research has shown that occupant’s perception of their capacity to control their
environmental conditions has a significant impact on their rating of thermal comfort.200
Adaptive models are based on hundreds of field studies, and are commonly used to define
acceptable temperature ranges in free-running buildings (Figure 24).201


xxxii The PMV index represent the predicted ‘vote’ of occupants rating their thermal comfort on a seven-point scale
from cold -3 to hot +3, where zero is the ideal value, representing thermal neutrality. The PMV can also be used to
predict the proportion of any population that will be dissatisfied with the environment — the predicted percentage
dissatisfied (PPD). The thresholds for different conditioned building classes are set based on either of these metrics:
Class A: ±0.2 (PPD ≤6%); class B ±0.5 (PPD ? ≤10%); and Class C ±0.7 (PPD ≤20%).

Page 183

Endnotes

Pembina Institute Accelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures | 173


352 Enterprise Green Communities, 2015 Enterprise Green Communities Criteria Checklist.
http://www.enterprisecommunity.org/sites/default/files/media-library/solutions-and-
innovation/green/ecp-2015-criteria-checklist-11-15.pdf; Enterprise Green Communities, FAQ: 2015
Enterprise Green Communities Criteria (2017).
https://www.enterprisecommunity.org/sites/default/files/media-library/solutions-and-
innovation/green/FAQ-2015-Green-Communities-Criteria-2017-2-27.pdf
353 New York State Homes & Community Renewal, Request for Proposals: Multi-Family Programs (2015).
http://www.nyshcr.org/Funding/UnifiedFundingMaterials/2015/2015-RFP-MulltiFamilyPrograms.pdf
354 Tim McDonald, personal communication, 14 August 2015.
355 Government of New York City, Low energy intensity building requirements for certain capital projects,
2016/0312. http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2240482&GUID=0A9A548C-E3D9-
4057-AEAC-426CA033FBBF
356 Laurie Kerr, “Next Gen Lean and Green NYC-Owned Buildings,” Urban Green, March 9, 2016.
http://urbangreencouncil.org/content/news/next-gen-lean-and-green-nyc-owned-buildings
357 It is worth noting that a previous version of the bill proposed that City capital projects greater than two
million dollars be built to Passive House standards (either PHIUS or iPHA). (Government of New York City,
Low energy intensity building requirements for certain capital projects, 2016/0312. Bill 701, subdivision l,
paragraph 3(i). http://legistar.council.nyc.gov/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2240482&GUID=0A9A548C-
E3D9-4057-AEAC-426CA033FBBF). On the topic of Passive House, the working group summary report
comments: “[The Passive House] absolute targets provide more certainty to energy performance outcomes, but
are not commonly used in the New York City building industry today. In addition, a metric for New York City
must account for the varying space uses and differences in building occupancy in the city to avoid penalizing
industries that have high energy use profiles, such as trading floors and television studios. Collaboration with
other jurisdictions and leaders on this effort is also key to ensuring market alignment of any new standards.” One
City, Built to Last, 108.
358 City of Vancouver, Zero Emissions Building Plan (2016), 24.
359 Ibid., 25
360 http://former.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/bylaws/BULLETIN/G002.pdf
361 City of Vancouver, Zero Emissions Building Plan (2016), 42. See also City of Vancouver, Floor Space
Exclusion to Accommodate Improved Building Performance (Envelope and Thermal Insulation) (2016).
http://former.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/BYLAWS/bulletin/F008.pdf
362 NYC PLanning, Zone Green Text Amendment, April 30, 2012.
http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/plans/zone-green/zone_green.pdf
363 SF Environment, “Priority Permitting.” http://sfenvironment.org/article/larger-projects-commercial-
amp-multifamily/priority-permitting; and City and County of San Francisco, Priority Permit Processing
Guidelines, Administrative Bulletin, April 27, 2015. http://sfdbi.org/sites/sfdbi.org/files/AB-004_0.pdf
364 Seattle Department of Construction & Inspections, "Priority Green Expedited."
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/permits/greenbuildingincentives/prioritygreenexpedited/default.htm
365 Sean Pander, personal communication, 17August 2015.
366 City of Vancouver, Letter to Passive House Institute on temporary allowances for building bylaw
compliance, March 17, 2014. Available at http://canphi.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CMO-SUS-Passive-
House-Equivlencies-Letter.pdf
367 Baltimore County, “High Performance Homes Tax Credits.”
http://www.baltimorecountymd.gov/Agencies/budfin/customerservice/taxpayerservices/taxcredits/perform
ancehomes.html

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Endnotes

Pembina Institute Accelerating Market Transformation for High-Performance Building Enclosures | 174


368 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Residential Energy Consumption Surve: 2009 RECS Survey
Data.” https://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2009/index.cfm?view=microdata
369 B.C. Building and Safety Standards Branch, Information Bulletin: Determining ASHRAE 90.1-2010 Climate
Zones (2014). http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/construction-
industry/building-codes-and-standards/bulletins/b14-01_determining_ashrae_901-2010_climate_zones.pdf

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