Download Abused by Therapy. How Searching for Childhood Trauma Can Damage Adult Lives PDF

TitleAbused by Therapy. How Searching for Childhood Trauma Can Damage Adult Lives
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Total Pages215
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Table of Contents
1. The Difficulty of Knowing About the Past
2. The Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse
3. The Strange History of the Dissociative Disorders
4. Diagnosing Dissociative Disorders
5. Therapy
6. The Consequences of Therapy
7. Belief Meets the Backlash
8. Alternative Approaches to Dissociation
9. The Campaign
10. The Damage
Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES II) Description and Interpretation
Document Text Contents
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Copyright © 2013 Katharine Mair The moral right of the author has been asserted.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted
under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the

case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.

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The therapy of these 15 women took place during the 1990s, before the

present version of the ISST-D guidelines had been published. However, these
therapists used methods similar to those currently recommended, and the only
noticeable difference was that they started probing for memories at earlier stages
of treatment and completed treatment within a shorter period of time. This
therapy lasted on average three years six months, ranging from 18 months to
nine and a half years. In some cases it would have lasted longer if two of the
therapists had not left to work elsewhere. As we have seen, the ISST-D
recommends at least three to five years of therapy, and suggests that it may take
far longer. There are obvious costs to this therapy, especially in the clients’
distress, so we need to know what is achieved during this time. The clients may
feel that, knowing the worst about their early lives, they now have an
explanation for any present difficulties. We need to know how much this helps
them in their later lives.

References – 5. Therapy

* All web pages were accessed in August 2013

1 Haddock, D.B. (2001). The Dissociative Disorder Sourcebook. New York:
Mcgraw Hill.

2 Van der Hart O., Nijenhuis E.R.S. and Steele K. (2006). The Haunted Self:
structural dissociation and the treatment of chronic traumatisation. New
York: Norton and Co.

3 Pendergrast M. (1996). Victims of Memory. London: Harper Collins.
4 Chu J.A. et al (2011). Guidelines for Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder

in Adults: third revision. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 12 (2), 115-

5 Van der Kolk B.A. and Fisler R. (1995). Dissociation and the Fragmentary
nature of Traumatic Memories: overview and exploratory study. Journal of
Traumatic Stress, 8 (4), 505-525.

6 Chu J.A. et al (2011), ibid, p. 142.
7 Restoration in Christ Ministries: (Follow links > Articles

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Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES II)
Description and Interpretation

Description: The Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES II) is a copyright-free,
screening instrument. According to its authors, Carlson and Putnam, “it is a
brief, self-report measure of the frequency of dissociative experiences. The scale
was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and convenient way to quantify
dissociative experiences. A response scale that allows subject to quantify their
experiences for each item was used so that scores could reflect a wider range of
dissociative symptomatology than possible using a dichotomous (yes/no)
format.” (see Dissociation 6 (1): 16-23)
Interpretation: The Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES II): When scoring,
drop the zero on the percentage e.g. 30%=3; 80%=8 then add up single digits for
client score.

Items from the DES for Each of the Three Main Factors of Dissociation:

Amnesia Factor: This factor measures memory loss, i.e., not knowing how you
got somewhere, being dressed in clothes you don’t remember putting on, finding
new things among belongings you don’t remember buying, not recognizing
friends or family members, finding evidence of having done things you don’t
remember doing, finding writings, drawings or notes you must have done but
don’t remember doing. Items — 3, 4, 5, 8, 25, 26.

Depersonalization/Derealization Factor: Depersonalization is characterized by
the recurrent experience of feeling detached from one’s self and mental
processes or a sense of unreality of the self. Items relating to this factor include
feeling that you are standing next to yourself or watching yourself do something
and seeing yourself as if you were looking at another person, feeling your body
does not belong to you, and looking in a mirror and not recognizing yourself.
Derealization is the sense of a loss of reality of the immediate environment.
These items include feeling that other people, objects, and the world around
them is not real, hearing voices inside your head that tell you to do things or
comment on things you are doing, and feeling like you are looking at the world

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through a fog, so that people and objects appear far away or unclear.

: This factor includes being so preoccupied or absorbed by
something that you are distracted from what is going on around you. The
absorption primarily has to do with one’s traumatic experiences. Items of this
factor include realizing that you did not hear part or all of what was said by
another, remembering a past event so vividly that you feel as if you are reliving
the event, not being sure whether things that they remember happening really did
happen or whether they just dreamed them, when you are watching television or
a movie you become so absorbed in the story you are unaware of other events
happening around you, becoming so involved in a fantasy or daydream that it
feels as though it were really happening to you, and sometimes sitting, staring
off into space, thinking of nothing, and being unaware of the passage of time.


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