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TitleAbolishing School Fees in Africa - World Bank eLibrary
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.4 MB
Total Pages280
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
CHAPTER 1. RATIONALE, ISSUES, AND CONDITIONS FOR SUSTAINING THE ABOLITION OF SCHOOL FEES
	School Fee Abolition: What Are the Rationale and Challenges?
	How Did the Five Countries Develop and Implement Their Fee Abolition Policies?
	What Are the Practical Lessons Learned from These Five Countries?
	Conclusion
	Annex: Fee Abolition in Five Country Studies
	Notes
	References
CHAPTER 2. FINANCING PRIMARY EDUCATION WITHIN A DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM: THE CASE OF ETHIOPIA
	Background
	Financing Education in Different Government Systems (Pre–Fee Abolition)
	Abolition of School Fees
	The Present Financial System of Education
	Constraints and Challenges
	Lessons Learned
	The Way Forward with School Fee Abolition
	Annex 2A: Background Statistics
	Annex 2B: The Education Sector Development Program
	Annex 2C: The Present System of Education and Its Implications for Financing
	Notes
	References and Other Sources
CHAPTER 3. FROM PILOT TO NATIONAL SCALE: GHANA’S EXPERIENCE WITH THE ABOLITION OF SCHOOL FEES
	Background to Education Programming and Sector Development
	Free Compulsory Basic Education
	Capitation Grant: Piloting in 40 Districts
	From Pilot to National Scale
	Conclusions and Lessons Learned
	Coping Strategies and the Way Forward
CHAPTER 4. ABOLITION OF SCHOOL FEES AND LEVIES IN KENYA
	Cost Sharing in Education
	Rationale for Free and Compulsory Primary Education
	Objectives of Free Primary Education
	Process of Planning and Implementation of Free Primary Education
	Challenges
	Coping Strategies and Mechanisms
	Lessons Learned
	Conclusion
	References
CHAPTER 5. REVIEW OF THE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION IN MALAWI
	Methodology
	Planning and Implementation of School Fee Abolition
	Impacts of the Free Primary Education Policy
	Lessons Learned
	The Way Forward
	Conclusion
	Annex 5A: List of People Interviewed
	Annex 5B: Additional Data on Educational Outcomes
	Notes
	References
CHAPTER 6. ABOLISHING FEES AND REDUCING THE COSTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL: THE EXPERIENCE OF MOZAMBIQUE
	The Mozambican Context
	The Educational System
	The Cost of Education
	The Abolition of ASE Fees
	The Direct Support to Schools Program
	Combining DSS and Special Incentives for Orphans and Vulnerable Children
	Other Interventions to Improve Access and Quality
	Managing Access Shock
	The Way Ahead
	Notes
	References
INDEX
BOX
	3.1 Success Stories in Some Remote Areas
FIGURES
	2C.1 The Governance Structure of Ethiopia
	3.1 Increase in Enrollment by Education Level in 40 Pilot Districts, 2003/04 and 2004/05
	3.2 Increase in Enrollment by Gender in 40 Pilot Districts, 2003/04 and 2004/05
	3.3 Analysis of Gross Enrollment Rate by Pilot and National Education Levels, 2002/03–2004/05
	3.4 GrossEnrollmentRateIncreasesbyEducationLevel,2003/04 and2004/05
	3.5 Gross Enrollment Rate Increases by Education Level and Region, 2004/05 and 2005/06
	4.1 Primary School Gross Enrollment Rates, 1999–2004
	4.2 Number of Textbooks by Subject and Standard, 2004
	5.1 Trends in Primary School Enrollments, 1990/91–2005
	5.2 Comparison of Standard 1 to Standard 8 Enrollments, 1990/91–2005
	5.3 Percentage of Repeaters in Primary School, 1990/91–2005
	5.4 Trends in Primary School Dropout Rate, 1990/91–2005
	5.5 Distribution of Primary School Enrollment by Standard, 1990/91–2005
	5.6 Progression of FPE Cohorts through the Primary School System
	6.1 Growth of EP1 Gross Enrollment Rate, 1981–2004 and 2005 Projection
	6.2 Gender Gap in Net Enrollment and Completion Rates in EP1, 1997/98 and 2004/05
	6.3 Increase in Gross Enrollment Rate by Province, 2003–05
	6.4 Net Primary School Attendance Rate by Sex and Wealth Index Quintile
	6.5 Primary School Attendance Rate among Children Ages 10–14 Years
MAPS
	3.1 Primary Net Enrollment by District, 2004/05
	3.2 Gender Parity Index of Primary Gross Enrollment, 2004/05
	3.3 School Fee Abolition and Introduction of Capitation Grant, 2004
	3.4 Relative Increase in Primary Enrollment, 2004/05
TABLES
	1A.1 Summary Informationon Fee Abolitionin Five Country Studies
	2.1 Education Expenditure Trends in Different Government Systems, 1970–2005
	2.2 Annual Fees Paid by Students Just before Fee Abolition
	2.3 Some “Residual” Fees Paid by Students, 2006
	2.4 Primary School Gross Enrollment Rate by Gender and Region, 1994/95 and 2004/05
	2.5 Enrollments for Grade 1 in Government and Nongovernment Primary Schools, 1994/95–2004/05
	2.6 Grade 1 Enrollment in Rural Areas, 1994/95–2004/05
	2.7 Primary Education Growth Indicators, 1994/95–2004/05
	2.8 Enrollment Trend and Recurrent Cost of Primary- and Secondary-Level Education, 1994/95–2004/05
	2.9 Some Indicators of Recurrent Cost at Primary Schools, 1997 and 1998
	2.10 Cost-Sharing Payment
	2.11 Community Contribution in Some Regions, 2004/05
	2A.1 Types of Fees (Mean) Reportedly Charged per Year by Government and Nongovernment Schools
	2A.2 Types of Schools by Ownership and Management, 2006
	2A.3 Grade 1 Intake of Government Schools, 1985/86–2004/05
	2A.4 Regional Recurrent Expenditure and Budget of Education, 1997 and 1998
	2A.5 Secondary Education Growth Indicators, 1994/95–2004/05
	2A.6 Capital and Recurrent Expenditure of Education in Ethiopia, 1994/95–2004/05
	2A.7 Recurrent Expenditure of Some Schools, 1997
	2A.8 Recurrent Budget of Some Schools, 1998
	2A.9 Primary Education Learning Assessment Results,1999 and 2004
	2B.1 Performance Indicators of the Ethiopian System of Education
	2C.1 General Structure of the Regular System of Education, on the Basis of Education and Training Policy
	3.1 Links between the Policy Goals of the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II and the Education Strategic Plan Focus Areas
	3.2 Enrollment and Access Trends at Kindergarten, Primary, and Junior Secondary Education Levels, 2003/04–2006/07
	3.3 Basic Education Certificate Examination Results for Mathematics and English, 2002/03–2004/05
	3.4 Increase in Enrollment by Education Level in 40 Pilot Districts, 2003/04 and 2004/05
	3.5 Increase in Enrollment by Gender in 40 Pilot Districts, 2003/04 and 2004/05
	3.6 Enrollment Growth in Deprived Districts, 2001/02–2004/05
	3.7 Gross Enrollment Rate Increases by Education Level, 2004/05 and 2005/06
	3.8 Gender Parity Index by Education Level, 2004/05 and 2005/06
	3.9 Increase in Enrollment Following National Implementation of Capitation Grant Scheme, by Education Level, 2004/05 and 2005/06
	3.10 Increase in Enrollment Following National Implementation of Capitation Grant Scheme, by Gender, 2004/05 and 2005/06
	4.1 Breakdown of Expenses Financed by the Capitation Grant
	4.2 Impact of Free Primary Education Policy on Public Primary School Enrollment by Province, 2002–04
	4.3 Primary Gross Enrollment Rate by Gender and Province, 2002–04
	4.4 Primary Net Enrollment Rate by Gender and Province, 2002–04
	4.5 Primary Completion Rate by Gender and Province, 2002–04
	4.6 Primary Repetition Rate by Gender and Province, 1999 and 2003
	4.7 Primary Dropout Rate by Gender and Province, 1999 and 2003
	4.8 Number of Textbooks in Primary Schools by Subject and Standard, 2004
	4.9 Textbook-Pupil Ratio by Subject and Standard, 2004
	4.10 Number of Teachers in Public Primary Schools and Pupil-Teacher Ratio, 1999–2004
	4.11 Analysis of Trends in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination, 2002–05
	4.12 Mean Score of Kenya Certificate of Primary Education by Gender and Province, 2002–05
	5.1 Time line for the Planning and Implementation of Free Primary Education, May 1994–February 1997
	5.2 Enrollment Growth Rate by Standard following the Fee Waivers, 1991/92–1994/95
	5.3 Primary School Enrollments by Gender, 1990/91–2005
	5.4 Trends in Gross Enrollment Rates by Household Expenditure Quintile and Gender, 1990/91–2004
	5.5 Trends in Net Enrollment Rates by Household Expenditure Quintile and Gender, 1990/91–2004
	5.6 Primary Education Quality Indicators, 1990/91–2005
	5.7 Survival Rates by Standard and Gender, 1990/91–2005
	5B.1 Primary Repetition Rates by Standard and Gender, 1990/91–2005
	5B.2 Primary Dropout Rates by Standard and Gender, 1990/91–2005
	5B.3 Primary Survival Rates by Standard and Gender, 1990/91–2005
	5B.4 Primary Pupil-Teacher Ratio, 1989/90–2005
	6.1 System Growth in Primary and Secondary Education, 1997–2006
	6.2 Primary Education System Performance, 1997–2005
	6.3 Range of Gender Differences between Provinces, 2004
	6.4 Gross Enrollment Rate by Consumption Quintile and Level of Education, 2004
	6.5 Net Enrollment Rate by Consumption Quintile and Level of Education, 2004
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE IN EDUCATION

Abolishing School Fees
in Africa
Lessons from Ethiopia, Ghana,
Kenya, Malawi, and Mozambique

Page 140

114 • Abolishing School Fees in Africa

a. Preschool

b. Primary school

Figure 3.5 Gross Enrollment Rate Increases by Education Level and Region,
2004/05 and 2005/06

Page 141

From Pilot to National Scale: Ghana’s Experience with the Abolition of School Fees • 115

c. Junior secondary school

Table 3.8 Gender Parity Index by Education Level, 2004/05 and 2005/06

Education level 2004/05 2005/06
Change

Preschool 0.97 0.98 0.01

Primary 0.93 0.95 0.02

Junior secondary 0.88 0.90 0.02

Figure 3.5 (continued )

Source: Education Management Information System.

trend is consistent when disaggregated by region (see figure 3.5). In terms
of the gender parity index, the comparative national figures for the
two years, 2004/05 and 2005/06 show an increase at all three education
levels (see table 3.8).

Figures collected from the districts on public schools for the imple-
mentation of the Capitation Grant Scheme demonstrate that the scheme
has contributed to a tremendous rise in enrollment (see table 3.9). In
terms of absolute figures, an additional 616,439 pupils (295,114 boys and
321,325 girls in table 3.10) above the 2004/05 enrollment figures were in
school at the end of 2006. This represents a general increase of 16.7 per-
cent. Specifically, preschool has seen an increase of 36.6 percent; primary,
14.2 percent; and JSS, 10.3 percent. These increases in raw enrollment

Page 280

Why abolish school fees in Africa? Th e answer seems obvious: to achieve the right to education for all and thus promote equitable participation in economic growth and political action. However, moving from a system
based on user fees, which stifl ed enrollment of the poorest and most vulnerable children,

to one of free basic education for everyone has hidden costs if the eff ort is unplanned

or underplanned. Th e immediate and dramatic infl ux of students can overburden the

education system and compromise quality because of a lack of qualifi ed teachers, an

increase in class size, and the loss of school-level funding. Such a result benefi ts no one.

If the elimination of school fees is to make a positive and sustainable impact on school

access and learning outcomes, then it must be carefully planned, widely negotiated, and

fi nancially supported. Toward these ends, the School Fee Abolition Initiative (SFAI) was

launched jointly by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank in

2005. Th e initiative promotes access to quality basic education worldwide through three

specifi c goals: constructing a knowledge base (database and analysis of experiences),

providing assistance (technical and fi nancial) to countries developing a national

education plan, and building the partnerships that will ensure success.

Abolishing School Fees in Africa is the product of a SFAI workshop, “School Fee Abolition:
Building on What We Know and Defi ning Sustained Support,” held in Kenya in 2006.

Th e book begins with a comparative overview of the processes, challenges, and lessons

learned by fi ve countries that had already abolished school fees: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya,

Malawi, and Mozambique. Th e subsequent chapters delineate the actual experiences of

each of the countries in planning and implementing their policies.

Th is volume will be invaluable to national policy makers and their development

partners—civil society, the private sector, development agencies—in eff orts to open access

to a quality basic education to all.

SKU 17540

978-0-8213-7540-2

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