Title ABB Switchgear Manual,10E 2001 Heat Transfer Sound Temperature Electrochemistry Thermal Conductivity 13.0 MB 896
```                            Index
Part 1
1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms
1.1 Units of physical quantities
1.1.1 The International System of Units (Sl)
1.1.2 Other units still in common use; metric, British and US measures
1.1.3 Fundamental physical constants
1.2 Physical, chemical and technical values
1.2.1 Electrochemical series
1.2.3 Thermoelectric series
1.2.4 pH value
1.2.5 Heat transfer
1.2.6 Acoustics, noise measurement, noise abatement
1.2.7 Technical values of solids, liquids and gases
1.3 Strength of materials
1.3.1 Fundamentals and definitions
1.3.2 Tensile and compressive strength
1.3.3 Bending strength
1.3.5 Buckling strength
1.3.6 Maximum permissible buckling and tensile stress for tubular rods
1.3.7 Shear strength
1.3.8 Moments of resistance and moments of inertia
1.4 Geometry, calculation of areas and solid bodies
1.4.1 Area of polygons
1.4.2 Areas and centres of gravity
1.4.3 Volumes and surface areas of solid bodies
Part 2
2 General Electrotechnical Formulae
2.1 Electrotechnical symbols as per DIN 1304 Part 1
2.2 Alternating-current quantities
2.3 Electrical resistances
2.3.1 Definitions and specific values
2.3.2 Resistances in different circuit configurations
2.3.3 The influence of temperature on resistance
2.4 Relationships between voltage drop, power loss and conductor
cross section
2.5 Current input of electrical machines and transformers
2.6 Attenuation constant a of transmission systems
Part 3
3 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents
in Three-Phase Systems
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1 Terms as per DIN VDE 0102 / IEC 909
3.1.2 Symmetrical components of asymmetrical three-phase systems
3.2 Fundamentals of calculation according to DIN VDE 0102 / IEC 909
Calculatlon of initial symmetrical short-circuit current
Calculation of peak short-circuit current
To calculate short-circuit currents of induction motors with terminal short circuit
Formulae for calculating impedances or reactances in %/MVA
Short-circuit currents with asymmetrical faults
Minimum short-circuit currents
3.3 Impedances of electrical equipment
3.3.1 System infeed
3.3.2 Electrical machines
3.3.3 Transformers and reactors
3.3.5 Three-phase cables
3.3.6 Busbars in switchgear installations
3.4 Examples of calculation
Contributions of individual infeeds to the “breaking capacity”
Maximum and minimum short-circuit currents at fault location
3.5 Effect of neutral point arrangement on fault behaviour in three- phase high- voltage networks above 1 kV
Part 4
4 Dimensioning switchgear installations
4.1 Insulation rating
4.2 Dimensioning of power installations for mechanical and
thermal short-circuit strength
4.2.1 Dimensioning of bar conductors for mechanical short-circuit strength
4.2.2 Dimensioning of stranded conductors
for mechanical short-circuit strength
4.2.3 Horizontal span displacement
4.2.4 Mechanical stress on cables and cable fittings
in the event of short circuit
4.2.5 Rating the thermal short-circuit current capability
4.3 Dimensioning of wire and tubular conductors for static loads
and electrical surface-field strength
4.3.1 Calculation of the sag of wire conductors in outdoor installations
4.3.2 Calculation of deflection and stress of tubular busbars
4.3.3 Calculation of electrical surface field strength
4.4 Dimensioning for continuous current rating
4.4.1 Temperature rise in enclosed switch boards
4.4.2 Ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms
4.4.3 Forced ventilation and air-conditioning of switchgear installations
4.4.4 Temperature rise in enclosed busbars
4.4.5 Temperature rise in insulated conductors
4.4.6 Longitudinal expansion of busbars
4.5 Rating power systems for earthquake safety
4.5.1 General principles
4.5.2 Experimental verification
4.6 Minimum clearances, protective barrier clearances and widths of
gangways
4.6.1 Minimum clearances and protective barrier clearances
in power systems with rated voltages over 1 kV (DIN VDE 0101)
4.6.2 Walkways and gangways in power installations with rated voltages
over 1 kV (DIN VDE 0101)
4.6.3 Gangway widths in power installations with rated voltages of up to 1 kV
(DIN VDE 0100 Part 729)
4.7 Civil construction requirements
4.7.1 Indoor installations
4.7.2 Outdoor installations
4.7.3 Installations subject to special conditions
4.7.4 Battery compartments
4.7.5 Transformer installation
4.7.6 Fire prevention
4.7.7 Shipping dimensions
Part 5
5 Protective Measures for Persons and
Installations
5.1 Electric shock protection in installations up to 1000 V as per
DIN VDE 0100
5.1.1 Protection against direct contact (basic protection)
5.1.2 Protection in case of indirect contact (fault protection)
5.1.3 Protection by extra low voltage
5.1.4 Protective conductors, PEN conductors and equipotential bonding
conductors
5.2 Protection against contact in installations above 1000 V
as per DIN VDE 0101
5.2.1 Protection against direct contact
5.2.2 Protection in case of indirect contact
5.3 Earthing
5.3.1 Fundamentals, definitions and specifications
5.3.2 Earthing material
5.3.3 Dimensioning of earthing systems
5.3.4 Earthing measurements
5.4 Lightning protection
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Methods of lightning protection
5.4.4 Lightning rods
5.5 Electromagnetic compatibility
5.5.1 Origin and propagation of interference quantities
5.5.2 Effect of interference quantities on interference sinks
5.5.3 EMC measures
5.6 Partial-discharge measurement
5.6.1 Partial discharge processes
5.6.2 Electrical partial-discharge measurement procedures
5.7 Effects of climate and corrosion protection
5.7.1 Climates
5.7.2 Effects of climate and climatic testing
5.7.3 Reduction of insulation capacity by humidity
5.7.4 Corrosion protection
5.8 Degrees of protection for electrical equipment of up to 72.5 kV
(VDE 0470 Part 1, EN 60529)
part 6
6 Methods and aids for planning installations
6.1 Planning of switchgear installations
6.1.1 Concept, boundary conditions, pc calculation aid
6.1.2 Planning of high-voltage installations
6.1.3 Project planning of medium-voltage installations
6.1.4 Planning of low-voltage installations
6.1.5 Calculation of short-circuit currents, computer-aided
6.1.6 Calculation of cable cross-sections, computer-aided
6.1.7 Planning of cable routing, computer-aided
6.2 Reference designations and preparation of documents
6.2.1 Item designation of electrical equipment as per DIN 40719 Part 2
6.2.2 Preparation of documents
6.2.3 Classification and designation of documents
6.2.4 Structural principles and reference designation as per IEC 61346
6.3 CAD/CAE methods applied to switchgear engineering
6.3.1 Terminology, standards
6.3.2 Outline of hardware and software for CAD systems
6.3.3 Overview of CAD applications in ABB switchgear engineering
6.4 Drawings
6.4.1 Drawing formats
6.4.2 Standards for representation
6.4.3 Lettering in drawings, line thicknesses
6.4.4 Text panel, identification of drawing
6.4.5 Drawings for switchgear installations
6.4.6 Drawing production, drafting aids
Part 7
7 Low-voltage Switchgear
7.1 Switchgear apparatus
7.1.1 Low-voltage switchgear as per VDE 0660 Part 100 and following parts, EN
60947 – ... and IEC 60947 – ...
7.1.2 Low-voltage fuses as per VDE 0636 Part 10 and following parts,
EN 60269 – ... IEC 60269 – ...
7.1.3 Protective switchgear for household and similar uses
7.1.4 Selectivity
7.1.5 Backup protection
7.2 Low-voltage switchgear installations and distribution boards
7.2.1 Basics
7.2.2 Standardized terms
7.2.3 Classification of switchgear assemblies
7.2.4 Internal subdivision by barriers and partitions
7.2.5 Electrical connections in switchgear assemblies
7.2.6 Verification of identification data of switchgear assemblies
7.2.7 Switchgear assemblies for operation by untrained personnel
7.2.8 Retrofitting, changing and maintaining low-voltage
switchgear assemblies
7.2.9 Modular low-voltage switchgear system (MNS system)
7.2.10 Low-voltage distribution boards in cubicle-type assembly
7.2.11 Low-voltage distribution boards in multiple box-type assembly
7.2.12 Systems for reactive power compensation
7.2.13 Control systems for low-voltage switchgear assemblies
7.3 Design aids
7.3.1 Keeping to the temperature rise limit
7.3.2 Internal arc test
7.3.3 Verification of the short-circuit current capability of busbar systems
7.3.4 Calculation programs for planning and design of low-voltage substations
7.4 Rated voltage 690 V
7.5 Selected areas of application
7.5.1 Design of low-voltage substations to withstand induced vibrations
7.5.2 Low-voltage substations in internal arc-proof design for offshore
applications
7.5.3 Substations for shelter
Part 8
8. Switchgear and switchgear installations
for high voltage up to and including 52 kV
(medium voltage)
8.1 Switchgear apparatus (52 kv)
8.1.1 Disconnectors
8.1.2 Switch-disconnectors
8.1.3 Earthing switches
8.1.4 Position indication
8.1.5 HV fuse links (DIN EN 60 282-1 (VDE 0670 Part 4))
8.1.6 I s -limiter – fastest switching device in the world
8.1.7 Circuit-breakers
8.2 Switchgear installations (52 kv)
8.2.1 Specifications covering HV switchgear installations
8.2.2 Switchgear as per DIN VDE 0101
8.2.3 Metal-enclosed switchgear as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
8.2.4 Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear
as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
8.2.5 Metal-enclosed gas-insulated switchgear
as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
8.2.6 Control systems for medium-voltage substations
8.3 Terminal connections for medium-voltage installations
8.3.1 Fully insulated transformer link with cables
8.3.2 SF 6 -insulated busbar connection
8.3.3 Solid-insulated busbar connection
Part 9
9 High-current switchgear
9.1 Generator circuit-breaker
9.1.1 Selection criteria for ABB types of generator circuit-breakers
9.1.2 ABB generator circuit-breaker type ranges HG... and HE...(SF 6 gas breaker)
9.1.3 ABB generator circuit-breaker type DR (air-blast breaker)
9.1.4 ABB generator circuit-breaker type VD 4 G (vacuum breaker)
9.2 High-current bus ducts (generator bus ducts)
9.2.1 General requirements
9.2.2 Types, features, system selection
9.2.3 Design dimensions
9.2.4 Structural design
9.2.5 Earthing system
9.2.6 Air pressure/Cooling system
Part 10
10 High-voltage apparatus
10.1 Definitions and electrical parameters for switchgear
10.2 Disconnectors and earthing switches
10.2.1 Rotary disconnectors
10.2.2 Single-column (pantograph) disconnector TFB
10.2.3 Two-column vertical break disconnectors
10.2.4 Single-column earthing switches
10.2.5 Operating mechanisms for disconnectors and earthing switches
10.3 Switch disconnectors
10.4 Circuit-breakers
10.4.1 Function, selection
10.4.2 Design of circuit-breakers for high-voltage (> 52 kV)
10.4.3 Interrupting principle and important switching cases
10.4.4 Quenching media and operating principle
10.4.5 Operating mechanism and control
10.5 Instrument transformers for switchgear installations
10.5.1 Definitions and electrical quantities
10.5.2 Current transformer
10.5.3 Inductive voltage transformers
10.5.4 Capacitive voltage transformers
10.5.5 Non-conventional transformers
10.6 Surge arresters
10.6.1 Design, operating principle
10.6.2 Application and selection of MO surge arresters
Part 11
11 High-Voltage Switchgear Installations
11.1 Summary and circuit configuration
11.1.1 Summary
11.1.2 Circuit configurations for high- and medium-voltage switchgear
installations
11.2 SF 6 gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)
11.2.1 General
11.2.2 SF 6 gas as insulating and arc-quenching medium
11.2.3 GIS for 72.5 to 800 kV
11.2.4 SMART-GIS
11.2.5 Station arrangement
11.2.6 Station layouts
11.2.7 SF 6 -insulated busbar links
11.3 Outdoor switchgear installations
11.3.1 Requirements, clearances
11.3.2 Arrangement and components
11.3.3 Switchyard layouts
11.4 Innovative HV switchgear technology
11.4.1 Concepts for the future
11.4.1.1 Process electronics (sensor technology, PISA)
11.4.1.2 Monitoring in switchgear installations
11.4.1.3 Status-oriented maintenance
11.4.2 Innovative solutions
11.4.2.1 Compact outdoor switchgear installations
11.4.2.2 Hybrid switchgear installations
11.4.2.3 Prefabricated, modular transformer substations (MUW ® )
11.4.3 Modular planning of transformer substations
11.4.3.1 Definition of modules
11.4.3.2 From the customer requirement to the modular system solution
11.5 Installations for high-voltage direct-current (HVDC)
transmission
11.5.1 General
11.5.2 Selection of main data for HVDC transmission
11.5.3 Components of a HVDC station
11.5.4 Station layout
11.6 Static var (reactive power) compensation (SVC)
11.6.1 Applications
11.6. 2 Types of compensator
11.6.3 Systems in operation
Part 12
12 Transformers and other Equipment for
Switchgear Installations
12.1 Transformers
12.1.1 Design, types and dimensions
12.1.2 Vector groups and connections
12.1.3 Impedance voltage, voltage variation and short-circuit current withstand
12.1.4 Losses, cooling and overload capacity
12.1.5 Parallel operation
12.1.6 Protective devices for transformers
12.1.7 Noise levels and means of noise abatement
12.2 Current-limiting reactors EN 60289 (VDE 0532 Part 20)
12.2.1 Dimensioning
12.2.2 Reactor connection
12.2.3 Installation of reactors
12.3 Capacitors
12.3.1 Power capacitors
12.3.2 Compensation of reactive power
12.4 Resistor devices
12.5 Rectifiers
Part 13
13 Conductor Materials and Accessories for
Switchgear Installations
13.1 Busbars, stranded-wire conductors and insulators
13.1.1 Properties of conductor materials
13.1.2 Busbars for switchgear installations
13.1.3 Drilled holes and bolted joints for busbar conductors
13.1.4 Technical values for stranded-wire conductors
13.1.5 Post-type insulators and overhead-line insulators
13.2 Cables, wires and flexible cords
13.2.1 Specifications, general
13.2.2 Current-carrying capacity
13.2.3 Selection and protection
13.2.4 Installation of cables and wires
13.2.5 Cables for control, instrument transformers and auxiliary supply in high-voltage
switchgear installations
13.2.6 Telecommunications cables
13.2.7 Data of standard VDE, British and US cables
13.2.8 Power cable accessories for low and medium-voltage
13.3 Safe working equipment in switchgear installations
Part 14
14 Protection and Control in Substations and
Power Networks
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Protection
14.2.1 Protection relays and protection systems
14.2.3 Protection of substations, lines and transformers
14.2.4 Generator unit protection
14.3 Control, measurement and regulation (secondary systems)
14.3.1 D.C. voltage supply
14.3.2 Interlocking
14.3.3 Control
14.3.4 Indication
14.3.5 Measurement
14.3.6 Synchronizing
14.3.7 Metering
14.3.8 Recording and logging
14.3.9 Automatic switching control
14.3.10 Transformer control and voltage regulation
14.3.11 Station control rooms
14.4 Substation control with microprocessors
14.4.1 Outline
14.4.2 Microprocessor and conventional secondary systems compared
14.4.3 Structure of computerized control systems
14.4.4 Fibre-optic cables
14.5 Network control and telecontrol
14.5.1 Functions of network control systems
14.5.2 Control centres with process computers for central network management
14.5.3 Control centres, design and equipment
14.5.4 Telecontrol and telecontrol systems
14.5.5 Transmission techniques
14.5.6 Technical conditions for telecontrol systems and interfaces with
substations
14.6.1 Purpose of ripple control and load management
14.6.2 Principle and components for ripple-control systems
14.6.3 Ripple-control command centre
14.6.4 Equipment for ripple control
Part 15
15 Secondary Installations
15.1 Stand-by power systems
15.1.1 Overview
15.1.2 Stand-by power with generator systems
15.1.3 Uninterruptible power supply with stand-by generating sets (rotating UPS
installations)
15.1.4 Uninterruptible power supply with static rectifiers
(static UPS installations)
15.2 High-speed transfer devices
15.2.2 Integration into the installation
15.2.3 Design of high-speed transfer devices
15.2.4 Functionality
15.2.5 Types of transfer
15.3 Stationary batteries and battery installations, DIN VDE 0510,
Part 2
15.3.1 Types and specific properties of batteries.
15.3.2 Charging and discharging batteries
15.3.3 Operating modes for batteries
15.3.4 Dimensioning batteries
15.3.5 Installing batteries, types of installation
15.4 Installations and lighting in switchgear installations
15.4.1 Determining electrical power demand for equipment
15.4.2 Layout and installation systems
15.4.3 Lighting installations
15.4.4 Fire alarm systems
15.5 Compressed-air systems in switchgear installations
15.5.1 Application, requirements, regulations
15.5.2 Physical basis
15.5.3 Design of compressed-air systems
15.5.4 Rated pressures and pressure ranges
15.5.5 Calculating compressed air generating and storage systems
15.5.6 Compressed air distribution systems
Part 16
16 Materials and Semi-Finished Products for
Switchgear Installations
16.1 Iron and steel
16.1.1 Structural steel, general
16.1.2 Dimensions and weights of steel bars, sections and tubes
16.1.3 Stresses in steel components
16.2 Non-ferrous metals
16.2.1 Copper for electrical engineering
16.2.2 Aluminium for electrical engineering
16.2.3 Brass
16.3 Insulating materials
16.3.1 Solid insulating materials
16.3.2 Liquid insulating materials
16.3.3 Gaseous insulating materials
16.4 Semi-finished products
16.4.1 Dimensions and weights of metal sheets, DIN EN 10130
16.4.2 Slotted steel strip
16.4.3 Screws and accessories
16.4.4 Threads for bolts and screws
Part 17
17 Miscellaneous
17.1 DIN VDE specifications and IEC publications for substation
design
17.2 Application of European directives to high-voltage switchgear installations.
CE mark
17.3 Quality in switchgear
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##### Document Text Contents
Page 1

ABB Switchgear Manual 10th Edition 2001, 888 pages

Chapter

1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms

2 General Electrotechnical Formulae

3 Calculation of Short Circuit Currents

4 Dimensioning for Switchgear Installations

5 Protective Measures for Persons and Installations

6 Methods and Aids for Planning of Installations

7 Low voltage Switchgear

8 Switchgear and Switchgear Installations 52 kV

9 High Current Switchgear

10 High Voltage Apparatus

11 High Voltage Switchgear Installations

12 Transformers and other Equipment for Switchgear Installations

13 Conductor Materials and Accessories for Switchgear Installations

14 Protection and Control in Substations and Power Networks

15 Secondary Installations

16 Materials and Semi Finished Products for Switchgear

17 Miscellaneous

Page 2

1

1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms

1.1 Units of physical quantities

1.1.1 The International System of Units (Sl)

The statutory units of measurement are1)

1. the basic units of the International System of Units (Sl units) for the basic quantities length,
mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity,

2. the units defined for the atomic quantities of quantity of substance, atomic mass and energy,

3. the derived units obtained as products of powers of the basic units and atomic units through
multiplication with a defined numerical factor,

4. the decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the units stated under 1-3.

Table 1-1

Basic SI units

Quantity Units Units
Symbol Name

Length m metre
Mass kg kilogramme
Time s second
Electric current A ampere
Thermodynamic temperature K kelvin
Luminous intensity cd candela
Atomic units
Quantity of substance mol mole

Table 1-2 Decimals Multiples and sub-multiples of units
Decimal power Pr

efi
x

Symbol

1012 109 106 103 102 101 10–1 Te
ra
Gi
ga
Me
ga
Kil
o
He
kto
De
ka
De
zi

T G M k h da d 10–2
10–3
10–6
10–9
10–
12

10–
15

10–
18

Zent
i
Milli
Mikr
o
Nan
o
Piko
Fem
to
Atto

c
m
µ
n
p
f
a

1)DIN 1301
1

Page 448

10

4
4
3

Rated voltage kV 123 123-170 245-300 420-(550)

Rated short-circuit
40 40 50 63

breaking current kA

Breaker arrangement

Breaker type ELF-SD3-1 LTB-D1 HPL-B1 HPL-B2
16 2⁄₃ Hz

Mechanism type HMB-1 HMB-1/HMB-1S HMB-4 HMB-8

Fig.10-8

ABB SF6 outdoor circuit-breaker, standard types for the central European region

Page 449

444

Fig.10-9

GIS circuit-breaker EXK-01 with SF6 self-blast interrupting chamber and hydraulic
spring mechanism HMB-1

1
2

8

3

6

5

4

7

1

1

2

2

1 Barrier insulator
2 Feed conductor
3 Current transformer

4 Interrupting chamber
5 Chamber insulator
6 Cover

7 Rotary feed
8 Mechanism

Page 895

1
7887

17.2 Application of European directives to high-voltage switchgear installations.
CE mark

The CE mark based on European Directives assists the free distribution of goods on the
European market. It is directed to the national standards supervising bodies. When the
manufacturer applies the CE mark, this states that the legal requirements for the
commercial product have been met. The CE mark is not a quality designation, a safety
designation or a designation of conformity to a standard.

The following three European Union Directives may be applicable to electrical
switchgear installations:

The Machine Directive covers most types of machines, with the exception of certain
special types that are specifically excluded. The power supply companies and the
manufacturers in Europe (EURELECTRIC/UNIPEDE and CAPIEL) have always been
of the unanimous opinion that high-voltage equipment is not subject to the Machine
Directive. The European Commission now shares this view. It should also be noted that
motors, by definition, are not covered by the Machine Directive.

The EMC Directive is intended for application to almost all electrical equipment.
However, fixed installations (which are assembled at the site of operation) have to meet
the EMC protection requirements but they do not require a declaration of conformity, a
CE mark nor an approval by any competent authority. This also applies to all primary
and secondary devices in these installations (as components with no direct function).

The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) is applicable to independent low-voltage equipment
which is also used in high-voltage switchgear and installations, such as control circuits,
protection relays, measuring and metering devices, terminal strips, etc. This equipment
must conform to the LVD and have a CE mark when purchased on the open market.

However, if control, measuring, protection and regulating equipment is a fixed
component of high-voltage substations and/or switchgear, it is not covered by the Low-
Voltage Directive, because by definition (as per IEC 50-441) they are considered to be
high-voltage products.

In conclusion it is noted that high-voltage equipment and installations, including
secondary installations, do not require a CE mark. However, they are subject to the
relevant standards and regulations.

17.3 Quality in switchgear

The functional reliability of switchgear installations and hence the largely undisturbed
transmission of electricity in a power network depends on the suitability and quality of
the switchgear, components, systems and processes employed. Of growing
importance in this regard is a forward-looking quality strategy with internationally
harmonized standards and their main quality systems. The following brief review of the
main international standards, terms and scope of quality assurance is intended to ease
the switchgear engineer’s introduction to this complex subject.

Page 896

888

According to the definition of the standard (DIN EN ISO 8402), quality means the totality
of the characteristics of a unit with reference to its ability to meet specified and
predefined requirements. With regard to the customer-supplier relationship, this means
that the supplier’s quality meets or exceeds the customer’s requirements and meets or
exceeds the statutory requirements with regard to the products and the processes.

Necessary for optimizing this attribute is a quality management system, i.e. a clearly
structured organization and procedures for implementing quality assurance, together
with the requisite means. Quality assurance in this sense is the sum of all the activities
of quality management, quality planning and quality control (see DIN 55 350-11).

The CEN members are required to adopt the series of European standards ISO 9000
to ISO 9004, which concern the setting up of a quality system. This standard must be
given the status of a national standard without any modifications. The series
comprises:

DIN EN ISO 9000: standards covering quality management and quality
assurance/QM statement

DIN EN ISO 9001: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement in design,
development, production, assembly and maintenance

DIN EN ISO 9002: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement in production,
assembly and maintenance

DIN EN ISO 9003: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement at final inspection

DIN EN ISO 9004: quality management systems and quality management
elements – guidelines

The goal of these standards is to assure the customer that the supplier meets specified
minimum requirements for the quality management system. This can be done by
supplying a quality management system statement to the customer or to an authorized
third party. All planned, systematic, trust-building activities in this framework are termed
quality assurance or quality management statement as per DIN EN ISO 8402 and
include the
– establishment of a design and process organization,
– qualification of employees and equipment,
– specification of management, responsibility and authority,
– requirement for documentation of regulations and results,
– requirement for reporting to the highest level of management,
– management of risks and economics,
– preventive measures for avoiding quality problems.