Download ABB Switchgear Manual,10E 2001 PDF

TitleABB Switchgear Manual,10E 2001
TagsHeat Transfer Sound Temperature Electrochemistry Thermal Conductivity
File Size13.0 MB
Total Pages896
Table of Contents
                            Index
Part 1
	1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms
		1.1 Units of physical quantities
			1.1.1 The International System of Units (Sl)
			1.1.2 Other units still in common use; metric, British and US measures
			1.1.3 Fundamental physical constants
		1.2 Physical, chemical and technical values
			1.2.1 Electrochemical series
			1.2.2 Faraday’s law
			1.2.3 Thermoelectric series
			1.2.4 pH value
			1.2.5 Heat transfer
			1.2.6 Acoustics, noise measurement, noise abatement
			1.2.7 Technical values of solids, liquids and gases
		1.3 Strength of materials
			1.3.1 Fundamentals and definitions
			1.3.2 Tensile and compressive strength
			1.3.3 Bending strength
			1.3.4 Loadings on beams
			1.3.5 Buckling strength
			1.3.6 Maximum permissible buckling and tensile stress for tubular rods
			1.3.7 Shear strength
			1.3.8 Moments of resistance and moments of inertia
		1.4 Geometry, calculation of areas and solid bodies
			1.4.1 Area of polygons
			1.4.2 Areas and centres of gravity
			1.4.3 Volumes and surface areas of solid bodies
Part 2
	2 General Electrotechnical Formulae
		2.1 Electrotechnical symbols as per DIN 1304 Part 1
		2.2 Alternating-current quantities
		2.3 Electrical resistances
			2.3.1 Definitions and specific values
			2.3.2 Resistances in different circuit configurations
			2.3.3 The influence of temperature on resistance
		2.4 Relationships between voltage drop, power loss and conductor
cross section
		2.5 Current input of electrical machines and transformers
		2.6 Attenuation constant a of transmission systems
Part 3
	3 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents
in Three-Phase Systems
		3.1 Terms and definitions
			3.1.1 Terms as per DIN VDE 0102 / IEC 909
			3.1.2 Symmetrical components of asymmetrical three-phase systems
		3.2 Fundamentals of calculation according to DIN VDE 0102 / IEC 909
			Calculatlon of initial symmetrical short-circuit current
			Calculation of peak short-circuit current
			Calculation of steady-state short-circuit current
			To calculate short-circuit currents of induction motors with terminal short circuit
			Formulae for calculating impedances or reactances in %/MVA
			Short-circuit currents with asymmetrical faults
			Minimum short-circuit currents
		3.3 Impedances of electrical equipment
			3.3.1 System infeed
			3.3.2 Electrical machines
			3.3.3 Transformers and reactors
			3.3.4 Three-phase overhead lines
			3.3.5 Three-phase cables
			3.3.6 Busbars in switchgear installations
		3.4 Examples of calculation
			Contributions of individual infeeds to the “breaking capacity”
			Maximum and minimum short-circuit currents at fault location
		3.5 Effect of neutral point arrangement on fault behaviour in three- phase high- voltage networks above 1 kV
Part 4
	4 Dimensioning switchgear installations
		4.1 Insulation rating
		4.2 Dimensioning of power installations for mechanical and
thermal short-circuit strength
			4.2.1 Dimensioning of bar conductors for mechanical short-circuit strength
			4.2.2 Dimensioning of stranded conductors
for mechanical short-circuit strength
			4.2.3 Horizontal span displacement
			4.2.4 Mechanical stress on cables and cable fittings
in the event of short circuit
			4.2.5 Rating the thermal short-circuit current capability
		4.3 Dimensioning of wire and tubular conductors for static loads
and electrical surface-field strength
			4.3.1 Calculation of the sag of wire conductors in outdoor installations
			4.3.2 Calculation of deflection and stress of tubular busbars
			4.3.3 Calculation of electrical surface field strength
		4.4 Dimensioning for continuous current rating
			4.4.1 Temperature rise in enclosed switch boards
			4.4.2 Ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms
			4.4.3 Forced ventilation and air-conditioning of switchgear installations
			4.4.4 Temperature rise in enclosed busbars
			4.4.5 Temperature rise in insulated conductors
			4.4.6 Longitudinal expansion of busbars
		4.5 Rating power systems for earthquake safety
			4.5.1 General principles
			4.5.2 Experimental verification
		4.6 Minimum clearances, protective barrier clearances and widths of
gangways
			4.6.1 Minimum clearances and protective barrier clearances
in power systems with rated voltages over 1 kV (DIN VDE 0101)
			4.6.2 Walkways and gangways in power installations with rated voltages
over 1 kV (DIN VDE 0101)
			4.6.3 Gangway widths in power installations with rated voltages of up to 1 kV
(DIN VDE 0100 Part 729)
		4.7 Civil construction requirements
			4.7.1 Indoor installations
			4.7.2 Outdoor installations
			4.7.3 Installations subject to special conditions
			4.7.4 Battery compartments
			4.7.5 Transformer installation
			4.7.6 Fire prevention
			4.7.7 Shipping dimensions
Part 5
	5 Protective Measures for Persons and
Installations
		5.1 Electric shock protection in installations up to 1000 V as per
DIN VDE 0100
			5.1.1 Protection against direct contact (basic protection)
			5.1.2 Protection in case of indirect contact (fault protection)
			5.1.3 Protection by extra low voltage
			5.1.4 Protective conductors, PEN conductors and equipotential bonding
conductors
		5.2 Protection against contact in installations above 1000 V
as per DIN VDE 0101
			5.2.1 Protection against direct contact
			5.2.2 Protection in case of indirect contact
		5.3 Earthing
			5.3.1 Fundamentals, definitions and specifications
			5.3.2 Earthing material
			5.3.3 Dimensioning of earthing systems
			5.3.4 Earthing measurements
		5.4 Lightning protection
			5.4.1 General
			5.4.2 Methods of lightning protection
			5.4.3 Overhead earth wires
			5.4.4 Lightning rods
		5.5 Electromagnetic compatibility
			5.5.1 Origin and propagation of interference quantities
			5.5.2 Effect of interference quantities on interference sinks
			5.5.3 EMC measures
		5.6 Partial-discharge measurement
			5.6.1 Partial discharge processes
			5.6.2 Electrical partial-discharge measurement procedures
		5.7 Effects of climate and corrosion protection
			5.7.1 Climates
			5.7.2 Effects of climate and climatic testing
			5.7.3 Reduction of insulation capacity by humidity
			5.7.4 Corrosion protection
		5.8 Degrees of protection for electrical equipment of up to 72.5 kV
(VDE 0470 Part 1, EN 60529)
part 6
	6 Methods and aids for planning installations
		6.1 Planning of switchgear installations
			6.1.1 Concept, boundary conditions, pc calculation aid
			6.1.2 Planning of high-voltage installations
			6.1.3 Project planning of medium-voltage installations
			6.1.4 Planning of low-voltage installations
			6.1.5 Calculation of short-circuit currents, computer-aided
			6.1.6 Calculation of cable cross-sections, computer-aided
			6.1.7 Planning of cable routing, computer-aided
		6.2 Reference designations and preparation of documents
			6.2.1 Item designation of electrical equipment as per DIN 40719 Part 2
			6.2.2 Preparation of documents
			6.2.3 Classification and designation of documents
			6.2.4 Structural principles and reference designation as per IEC 61346
		6.3 CAD/CAE methods applied to switchgear engineering
			6.3.1 Terminology, standards
			6.3.2 Outline of hardware and software for CAD systems
			6.3.3 Overview of CAD applications in ABB switchgear engineering
		6.4 Drawings
			6.4.1 Drawing formats
			6.4.2 Standards for representation
			6.4.3 Lettering in drawings, line thicknesses
			6.4.4 Text panel, identification of drawing
			6.4.5 Drawings for switchgear installations
			6.4.6 Drawing production, drafting aids
Part 7
	7 Low-voltage Switchgear
		7.1 Switchgear apparatus
			7.1.1 Low-voltage switchgear as per VDE 0660 Part 100 and following parts, EN
60947 – ... and IEC 60947 – ...
			7.1.2 Low-voltage fuses as per VDE 0636 Part 10 and following parts,
EN 60269 – ... IEC 60269 – ...
			7.1.3 Protective switchgear for household and similar uses
			7.1.4 Selectivity
			7.1.5 Backup protection
		7.2 Low-voltage switchgear installations and distribution boards
			7.2.1 Basics
			7.2.2 Standardized terms
			7.2.3 Classification of switchgear assemblies
			7.2.4 Internal subdivision by barriers and partitions
			7.2.5 Electrical connections in switchgear assemblies
			7.2.6 Verification of identification data of switchgear assemblies
			7.2.7 Switchgear assemblies for operation by untrained personnel
			7.2.8 Retrofitting, changing and maintaining low-voltage
switchgear assemblies
			7.2.9 Modular low-voltage switchgear system (MNS system)
			7.2.10 Low-voltage distribution boards in cubicle-type assembly
			7.2.11 Low-voltage distribution boards in multiple box-type assembly
			7.2.12 Systems for reactive power compensation
			7.2.13 Control systems for low-voltage switchgear assemblies
		7.3 Design aids
			7.3.1 Keeping to the temperature rise limit
			7.3.2 Internal arc test
			7.3.3 Verification of the short-circuit current capability of busbar systems
			7.3.4 Calculation programs for planning and design of low-voltage substations
		7.4 Rated voltage 690 V
		7.5 Selected areas of application
			7.5.1 Design of low-voltage substations to withstand induced vibrations
			7.5.2 Low-voltage substations in internal arc-proof design for offshore
applications
			7.5.3 Substations for shelter
Part 8
	8. Switchgear and switchgear installations
for high voltage up to and including 52 kV
(medium voltage)
		8.1 Switchgear apparatus (52 kv)
			8.1.1 Disconnectors
			8.1.2 Switch-disconnectors
			8.1.3 Earthing switches
			8.1.4 Position indication
			8.1.5 HV fuse links (DIN EN 60 282-1 (VDE 0670 Part 4))
			8.1.6 I s -limiter – fastest switching device in the world
			8.1.7 Circuit-breakers
		8.2 Switchgear installations (52 kv)
			8.2.1 Specifications covering HV switchgear installations
			8.2.2 Switchgear as per DIN VDE 0101
			8.2.3 Metal-enclosed switchgear as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
			8.2.4 Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear
as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
			8.2.5 Metal-enclosed gas-insulated switchgear
as per DIN EN 60298 (VDE 0670 Part 6)
			8.2.6 Control systems for medium-voltage substations
		8.3 Terminal connections for medium-voltage installations
			8.3.1 Fully insulated transformer link with cables
			8.3.2 SF 6 -insulated busbar connection
			8.3.3 Solid-insulated busbar connection
Part 9
	9 High-current switchgear
		9.1 Generator circuit-breaker
			9.1.1 Selection criteria for ABB types of generator circuit-breakers
			9.1.2 ABB generator circuit-breaker type ranges HG... and HE...(SF 6 gas breaker)
			9.1.3 ABB generator circuit-breaker type DR (air-blast breaker)
			9.1.4 ABB generator circuit-breaker type VD 4 G (vacuum breaker)
		9.2 High-current bus ducts (generator bus ducts)
			9.2.1 General requirements
			9.2.2 Types, features, system selection
			9.2.3 Design dimensions
			9.2.4 Structural design
			9.2.5 Earthing system
			9.2.6 Air pressure/Cooling system
Part 10
	10 High-voltage apparatus
		10.1 Definitions and electrical parameters for switchgear
		10.2 Disconnectors and earthing switches
			10.2.1 Rotary disconnectors
			10.2.2 Single-column (pantograph) disconnector TFB
			10.2.3 Two-column vertical break disconnectors
			10.2.4 Single-column earthing switches
			10.2.5 Operating mechanisms for disconnectors and earthing switches
		10.3 Switch disconnectors
		10.4 Circuit-breakers
			10.4.1 Function, selection
			10.4.2 Design of circuit-breakers for high-voltage (> 52 kV)
			10.4.3 Interrupting principle and important switching cases
			10.4.4 Quenching media and operating principle
			10.4.5 Operating mechanism and control
		10.5 Instrument transformers for switchgear installations
			10.5.1 Definitions and electrical quantities
			10.5.2 Current transformer
			10.5.3 Inductive voltage transformers
			10.5.4 Capacitive voltage transformers
			10.5.5 Non-conventional transformers
		10.6 Surge arresters
			10.6.1 Design, operating principle
			10.6.2 Application and selection of MO surge arresters
			Overvoltage protection of the cable link of overhead lines,
Part 11
	11 High-Voltage Switchgear Installations
		11.1 Summary and circuit configuration
			11.1.1 Summary
			11.1.2 Circuit configurations for high- and medium-voltage switchgear
installations
		11.2 SF 6 gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)
			11.2.1 General
			11.2.2 SF 6 gas as insulating and arc-quenching medium
			11.2.3 GIS for 72.5 to 800 kV
			11.2.4 SMART-GIS
			11.2.5 Station arrangement
			11.2.6 Station layouts
			11.2.7 SF 6 -insulated busbar links
		11.3 Outdoor switchgear installations
			11.3.1 Requirements, clearances
			11.3.2 Arrangement and components
			11.3.3 Switchyard layouts
		11.4 Innovative HV switchgear technology
			11.4.1 Concepts for the future
				11.4.1.1 Process electronics (sensor technology, PISA)
				11.4.1.2 Monitoring in switchgear installations
				11.4.1.3 Status-oriented maintenance
			11.4.2 Innovative solutions
				11.4.2.1 Compact outdoor switchgear installations
				11.4.2.2 Hybrid switchgear installations
				11.4.2.3 Prefabricated, modular transformer substations (MUW ® )
			11.4.3 Modular planning of transformer substations
				11.4.3.1 Definition of modules
				11.4.3.2 From the customer requirement to the modular system solution
		11.5 Installations for high-voltage direct-current (HVDC)
transmission
			11.5.1 General
			11.5.2 Selection of main data for HVDC transmission
			11.5.3 Components of a HVDC station
			11.5.4 Station layout
		11.6 Static var (reactive power) compensation (SVC)
			11.6.1 Applications
			11.6. 2 Types of compensator
			11.6.3 Systems in operation
Part 12
	12 Transformers and other Equipment for
Switchgear Installations
		12.1 Transformers
			12.1.1 Design, types and dimensions
			12.1.2 Vector groups and connections
			12.1.3 Impedance voltage, voltage variation and short-circuit current withstand
			12.1.4 Losses, cooling and overload capacity
			12.1.5 Parallel operation
			12.1.6 Protective devices for transformers
			12.1.7 Noise levels and means of noise abatement
		12.2 Current-limiting reactors EN 60289 (VDE 0532 Part 20)
			12.2.1 Dimensioning
			12.2.2 Reactor connection
			12.2.3 Installation of reactors
		12.3 Capacitors
			12.3.1 Power capacitors
			12.3.2 Compensation of reactive power
		12.4 Resistor devices
		12.5 Rectifiers
Part 13
	13 Conductor Materials and Accessories for
Switchgear Installations
		13.1 Busbars, stranded-wire conductors and insulators
			13.1.1 Properties of conductor materials
			13.1.2 Busbars for switchgear installations
			13.1.3 Drilled holes and bolted joints for busbar conductors
			13.1.4 Technical values for stranded-wire conductors
			13.1.5 Post-type insulators and overhead-line insulators
		13.2 Cables, wires and flexible cords
			13.2.1 Specifications, general
			13.2.2 Current-carrying capacity
			13.2.3 Selection and protection
			13.2.4 Installation of cables and wires
			13.2.5 Cables for control, instrument transformers and auxiliary supply in high-voltage
switchgear installations
			13.2.6 Telecommunications cables
			13.2.7 Data of standard VDE, British and US cables
			13.2.8 Power cable accessories for low and medium-voltage
		13.3 Safe working equipment in switchgear installations
Part 14
	14 Protection and Control in Substations and
Power Networks
		14.1 Introduction
		14.2 Protection
			14.2.1 Protection relays and protection systems
			14.2.2 Advantages of numeric relays
			14.2.3 Protection of substations, lines and transformers
			14.2.4 Generator unit protection
		14.3 Control, measurement and regulation (secondary systems)
			14.3.1 D.C. voltage supply
			14.3.2 Interlocking
			14.3.3 Control
			14.3.4 Indication
			14.3.5 Measurement
			14.3.6 Synchronizing
			14.3.7 Metering
			14.3.8 Recording and logging
			14.3.9 Automatic switching control
			14.3.10 Transformer control and voltage regulation
			14.3.11 Station control rooms
		14.4 Substation control with microprocessors
			14.4.1 Outline
			14.4.2 Microprocessor and conventional secondary systems compared
			14.4.3 Structure of computerized control systems
			14.4.4 Fibre-optic cables
		14.5 Network control and telecontrol
			14.5.1 Functions of network control systems
			14.5.2 Control centres with process computers for central network management
			14.5.3 Control centres, design and equipment
			14.5.4 Telecontrol and telecontrol systems
			14.5.5 Transmission techniques
			14.5.6 Technical conditions for telecontrol systems and interfaces with
substations
		14.6 Load management, ripple control
			14.6.1 Purpose of ripple control and load management
			14.6.2 Principle and components for ripple-control systems
			14.6.3 Ripple-control command centre
			14.6.4 Equipment for ripple control
			14.6.5 Ripple control receivers
Part 15
	15 Secondary Installations
		15.1 Stand-by power systems
			15.1.1 Overview
			15.1.2 Stand-by power with generator systems
			15.1.3 Uninterruptible power supply with stand-by generating sets (rotating UPS
installations)
			15.1.4 Uninterruptible power supply with static rectifiers
(static UPS installations)
		15.2 High-speed transfer devices
			15.2.1 Applications, usage, tasks
			15.2.2 Integration into the installation
			15.2.3 Design of high-speed transfer devices
			15.2.4 Functionality
			15.2.5 Types of transfer
		15.3 Stationary batteries and battery installations, DIN VDE 0510,
Part 2
			15.3.1 Types and specific properties of batteries.
			15.3.2 Charging and discharging batteries
			15.3.3 Operating modes for batteries
			15.3.4 Dimensioning batteries
			15.3.5 Installing batteries, types of installation
		15.4 Installations and lighting in switchgear installations
			15.4.1 Determining electrical power demand for equipment
			15.4.2 Layout and installation systems
			15.4.3 Lighting installations
			15.4.4 Fire alarm systems
		15.5 Compressed-air systems in switchgear installations
			15.5.1 Application, requirements, regulations
			15.5.2 Physical basis
			15.5.3 Design of compressed-air systems
			15.5.4 Rated pressures and pressure ranges
			15.5.5 Calculating compressed air generating and storage systems
			15.5.6 Compressed air distribution systems
Part 16
	16 Materials and Semi-Finished Products for
Switchgear Installations
		16.1 Iron and steel
			16.1.1 Structural steel, general
			16.1.2 Dimensions and weights of steel bars, sections and tubes
			16.1.3 Stresses in steel components
		16.2 Non-ferrous metals
			16.2.1 Copper for electrical engineering
			16.2.2 Aluminium for electrical engineering
			16.2.3 Brass
		16.3 Insulating materials
			16.3.1 Solid insulating materials
			16.3.2 Liquid insulating materials
			16.3.3 Gaseous insulating materials
		16.4 Semi-finished products
			16.4.1 Dimensions and weights of metal sheets, DIN EN 10130
			16.4.2 Slotted steel strip
			16.4.3 Screws and accessories
			16.4.4 Threads for bolts and screws
			16.4.5 Threads for electrical engineering
Part 17
	17 Miscellaneous
		17.1 DIN VDE specifications and IEC publications for substation
design
		17.2 Application of European directives to high-voltage switchgear installations.
CE mark
		17.3 Quality in switchgear
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ABB Switchgear Manual 10th Edition 2001, 888 pages

Chapter

1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms

2 General Electrotechnical Formulae

3 Calculation of Short Circuit Currents

4 Dimensioning for Switchgear Installations

5 Protective Measures for Persons and Installations

6 Methods and Aids for Planning of Installations

7 Low voltage Switchgear

8 Switchgear and Switchgear Installations 52 kV

9 High Current Switchgear

10 High Voltage Apparatus

11 High Voltage Switchgear Installations

12 Transformers and other Equipment for Switchgear Installations

13 Conductor Materials and Accessories for Switchgear Installations

14 Protection and Control in Substations and Power Networks

15 Secondary Installations

16 Materials and Semi Finished Products for Switchgear

17 Miscellaneous

Page 2

1


1 Fundamental Physical and Technical Terms

1.1 Units of physical quantities

1.1.1 The International System of Units (Sl)

The statutory units of measurement are1)

1. the basic units of the International System of Units (Sl units) for the basic quantities length,
mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity,

2. the units defined for the atomic quantities of quantity of substance, atomic mass and energy,

3. the derived units obtained as products of powers of the basic units and atomic units through
multiplication with a defined numerical factor,

4. the decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the units stated under 1-3.

Table 1-1

Basic SI units

Quantity Units Units
Symbol Name

Length m metre
Mass kg kilogramme
Time s second
Electric current A ampere
Thermodynamic temperature K kelvin
Luminous intensity cd candela
Atomic units
Quantity of substance mol mole

Table 1-2 Decimals Multiples and sub-multiples of units
Decimal power Pr

efi
x

Symbol

1012 109 106 103 102 101 10–1 Te
ra
Gi
ga
Me
ga
Kil
o
He
kto
De
ka
De
zi

T G M k h da d 10–2
10–3
10–6
10–9
10–
12

10–
15

10–
18

Zent
i
Milli
Mikr
o
Nan
o
Piko
Fem
to
Atto

c
m
µ
n
p
f
a

1)DIN 1301
1

Page 448

10

4
4
3

Rated voltage kV 123 123-170 245-300 420-(550)

Rated short-circuit
40 40 50 63

breaking current kA

Breaker arrangement

Breaker type ELF-SD3-1 LTB-D1 HPL-B1 HPL-B2
16 2⁄₃ Hz

Mechanism type HMB-1 HMB-1/HMB-1S HMB-4 HMB-8

Fig.10-8

ABB SF6 outdoor circuit-breaker, standard types for the central European region

Page 449

444

Fig.10-9

GIS circuit-breaker EXK-01 with SF6 self-blast interrupting chamber and hydraulic
spring mechanism HMB-1

1
2

8

3

6

5

4

7

1

1

2

2

1 Barrier insulator
2 Feed conductor
3 Current transformer

4 Interrupting chamber
5 Chamber insulator
6 Cover

7 Rotary feed
8 Mechanism

Page 895

1
7887

17.2 Application of European directives to high-voltage switchgear installations.
CE mark

The CE mark based on European Directives assists the free distribution of goods on the
European market. It is directed to the national standards supervising bodies. When the
manufacturer applies the CE mark, this states that the legal requirements for the
commercial product have been met. The CE mark is not a quality designation, a safety
designation or a designation of conformity to a standard.

The following three European Union Directives may be applicable to electrical
switchgear installations:

The Machine Directive covers most types of machines, with the exception of certain
special types that are specifically excluded. The power supply companies and the
manufacturers in Europe (EURELECTRIC/UNIPEDE and CAPIEL) have always been
of the unanimous opinion that high-voltage equipment is not subject to the Machine
Directive. The European Commission now shares this view. It should also be noted that
motors, by definition, are not covered by the Machine Directive.

The EMC Directive is intended for application to almost all electrical equipment.
However, fixed installations (which are assembled at the site of operation) have to meet
the EMC protection requirements but they do not require a declaration of conformity, a
CE mark nor an approval by any competent authority. This also applies to all primary
and secondary devices in these installations (as components with no direct function).

The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) is applicable to independent low-voltage equipment
which is also used in high-voltage switchgear and installations, such as control circuits,
protection relays, measuring and metering devices, terminal strips, etc. This equipment
must conform to the LVD and have a CE mark when purchased on the open market.

However, if control, measuring, protection and regulating equipment is a fixed
component of high-voltage substations and/or switchgear, it is not covered by the Low-
Voltage Directive, because by definition (as per IEC 50-441) they are considered to be
high-voltage products.

In conclusion it is noted that high-voltage equipment and installations, including
secondary installations, do not require a CE mark. However, they are subject to the
relevant standards and regulations.

17.3 Quality in switchgear

The functional reliability of switchgear installations and hence the largely undisturbed
transmission of electricity in a power network depends on the suitability and quality of
the switchgear, components, systems and processes employed. Of growing
importance in this regard is a forward-looking quality strategy with internationally
harmonized standards and their main quality systems. The following brief review of the
main international standards, terms and scope of quality assurance is intended to ease
the switchgear engineer’s introduction to this complex subject.

Page 896

888

According to the definition of the standard (DIN EN ISO 8402), quality means the totality
of the characteristics of a unit with reference to its ability to meet specified and
predefined requirements. With regard to the customer-supplier relationship, this means
that the supplier’s quality meets or exceeds the customer’s requirements and meets or
exceeds the statutory requirements with regard to the products and the processes.

Necessary for optimizing this attribute is a quality management system, i.e. a clearly
structured organization and procedures for implementing quality assurance, together
with the requisite means. Quality assurance in this sense is the sum of all the activities
of quality management, quality planning and quality control (see DIN 55 350-11).

The CEN members are required to adopt the series of European standards ISO 9000
to ISO 9004, which concern the setting up of a quality system. This standard must be
given the status of a national standard without any modifications. The series
comprises:

DIN EN ISO 9000: standards covering quality management and quality
assurance/QM statement

DIN EN ISO 9001: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement in design,
development, production, assembly and maintenance

DIN EN ISO 9002: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement in production,
assembly and maintenance

DIN EN ISO 9003: quality management systems,
model for quality assurance/QM statement at final inspection

DIN EN ISO 9004: quality management systems and quality management
elements – guidelines

The goal of these standards is to assure the customer that the supplier meets specified
minimum requirements for the quality management system. This can be done by
supplying a quality management system statement to the customer or to an authorized
third party. All planned, systematic, trust-building activities in this framework are termed
quality assurance or quality management statement as per DIN EN ISO 8402 and
include the
– establishment of a design and process organization,
– qualification of employees and equipment,
– specification of management, responsibility and authority,
– requirement for documentation of regulations and results,
– requirement for reporting to the highest level of management,
– management of risks and economics,
– preventive measures for avoiding quality problems.

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