Download A User's Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain PDF

TitleA User's Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.8 MB
Total Pages403
Table of Contents
                            INTRODUCTION
1.  DEVELOPMENT
2.  PERCEPTION
3.  ATTENTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS
4.  MOVEMENT
5.  MEMORY
6.  EMOTION
7.  LANGUAGE
8.  THE SOCIAL BRAIN
9.  THE FOUR THEATERS
10. CARE AND FEEDING
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
SUGGESTED READING
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 202

Tulving and Dan Schacter reported on a patient, Gene, who had suffered damage
to his frontal and temporal cortex, including his left hippocampus. He was
unable to recall any specific event of his past and could not learn anything new.
However, he had semantic knowledge; he was able to remember the route he
took to get to school and the details of changing a tire, even though he could not
remember himself at school, or any time he might have changed a tire.

Though episodic and semantic memory are related, a recent study of three
British children suggests that the hippocampus is critical only for episodic
memory. London neuropsychologist Faraneh Vargha-Khadem reported that
children with severe amnesia due to damage to the hippocampus can still have
surprisingly good semantic memory. The three children, Beth, Jon, and Kate, are
now, respectively, fourteen, nineteen, and twenty-two years old. Each had
suffered brain damage from oxygen deprivation—Beth at birth, Jon at birth or
during convulsions at age four, and Kate owing to respiratory arrest at age nine.
The children baffled doctors: They couldn’t remember what day it was or what
TV program they had just watched, and they routinely got lost in familiar
surroundings. Yet they somehow learned to read, write, and spell as well as their
classmates. They got average grades in mainstream schools and rattled off facts
and definitions. Yet they would forget conversations they’d just had and even
what day it was. The tragedy is that, despite their academic smarts, their amnesia
is so severe that they have to live under strict supervision, and will never be able
to lead independent lives.

WE’VE SEEN THE ways in which memory operates. Now let’s quickly look at the basic
types of memory: sensory, motor, visuospatial, and language.

Each of our senses gives us a part of the world—sound, sight, taste, smell, touch
—and so our memories can be recalled from any number of sensory cues. A
famous clinical example of the melding of the senses and memory involves,
once again, the famous mnemonist S. V. Shereshevski, who in the early 1960s
astonished crowds with his infallible memory for meaningless detail.
Shereshevski perceived with crisscrossed senses. He would see sounds, hear
colors, feel tastes, and taste shapes. In response to hearing a tone at 2,000 cycles
per second, for example, Shereshevski said, “It looks something like fireworks

Page 402

van der Kolk, Bessel

Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

vasopressin

Velvet Harpoon

ventromedial prefrontal cortex vervet monkeys

Vicary, Thomas

virtual-reality treatment brain’s ability to learn hearing and

overload and

peripheral

Rickie’s problems with

dyslexia “visual dropouts”

visuospatial memory

vitamins

vomeronasal organ (VNO)

Wada test

Waterhouse, Lynn

Weiss, Sam

Wellbutrin

Werner, Emmy

White House child development conference whole-language reading techniques Williams, Donna

Williams, Linda Meyer

William’s syndrome

“windows of opportunity,” of brain development Wisconsin, University of

Wisconsin Card Sorting Task women:

language and verbal IQs of memories of sexual abuse of menstrual synchrony and

rape and

superior sense of smell of pregnancy working memory

worry

Wright, Robert

writing

X-rays

Yale University

Young, Andrew

Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

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