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Submitted by

Md. Mazharul Hossain

Id no. 2007-3-70-041

Dissertation Submitted to

East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree

Bachelor of Pharmacy

Under the Guidance of

Dr. Sufia Islam

Associate Professor and Chairperson

Department of Pharmacy

East West University

Dhaka, Bangladesh.


Page 2

Declaration by the Research candidate

I, Md. Mazharul Hossain, hereby declare that the dissertation entitled

knowledge, attitude and practice about personal hygiene and disease awareness of East

submitted by me to the Department of Pharmacy,

East West University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.PHARM) is a complete record of original research work carried out

by me during the period 2011-2012 under the supervision and guidance of Dr. Sufia Islam

Associate Professor and Chairperson Department of Pharmacy, East West University and it

has not formed the basis for the award of any other Degree/Diploma/Fellowship or other

similar title to any candidate of any University.

Md. Mazharul Hossain

Id no. 2007-3-70-041

Dissertation Submitted to

East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Page 47

Personal hygiene and disease awareness 36

hygiene without washing their hands


frequently as necessary but definitely

before handling food or equipment, after

visiting the toilet, in between handling raw

and cooked food and after handling waste

food or refuse. Poor personal hygiene can

result in food becoming contaminated with




A knife used to cut raw meat

is not washed and is then

used to cut cooked or ready-

to-eat foods

Food poisoning bacteria may be present in

raw food such a meat and poultry. If these

bacteria allowed contaminating food which

is to be eaten without further cooking, food

poisoning can result. Cross contamination

from raw food may be happen as a result of

poor storage, When the juices from raw

meat are allowed to drip on to cooked food,

or via a chopping board, work surface or

utensils used for both raw and cooked food.

Food handlers must wash their hand and

equipment after handling raw meat.

Failure to keep

cooked food


Serving food which has been

allowed to stand and become

cool- below 63°c- after


Hot food should be kept above 63°c. As

thorough cooking does not destroyed

spores, hot food kept below this

temperature can allow the spores to

geminate and produce food poisoning


Infected food


A person who returns to

work after vomiting and

diarrhea may still be a carrier

of food poisoning bacteria

Anyone suffering from a gastrointestinal

illness (vomiting, diarrhea and so on)

should not prepare or serve food for others

until totally clear of symptoms for at least

48 hours. Even then, very thorough hand

washing is essential. Boils and cuts which

have turned septic are other sources of

pathogens. Wounds should be completely

Page 48

Personal hygiene and disease awareness 37

covered and protected by waterproof


Eating food

from unsafe


Buying high risk foods from

supply vehicle which does

not have proper refrigeration.

Only buy chilled foods stored in

refrigerated cabinets

(Meggitt et al, 2003)

It is difficult to say to when pathogenic bacteria in food have made someone ill. The general

symptoms of food poisoning are: feeling sick, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain,

fever, aching limps, headache. Some of the symptoms listed above can also be associated

with other illness. The actual sickness can last for up to five days or even longer, depending

on the type of bacteria (Meggitt et al, 2003).



The use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment and control of infectious diseases in animals

and crops continues because of considerations regarding animal health and welfare, and plant

health. Consequently the transfer of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and bacteria-borne

resistance genes from animals or crops to humans via food remains a matter of public health

concern (Garner et al, 1985).

The use of antimicrobials at sub-therapeutic levels in food producing animals has long been

viewed as undesirable e.g. the Swann report, 1969. Since January 2006 the use of all

antimicrobial feed additives has been banned within the EU in order to reduce the numbers of

resistant bacteria in farm animals. The effect of this ban on the extent of bacterial

antimicrobial resistance both within farm animals, and with regard to human health, however,

is unclear (Morton et al, 2002). Use of antimicrobial agents is the main driver for the

development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, spontaneous mutation in

foodborne bacteria or the spread of resistant bacteria in the absence of selective pressure may

also contribute to the antimicrobial resistance burden in food (Garner et al, 1985).

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and bacteria-borne resistance genes can be spread to humans

via food by different routes and mechanisms, for example:

Page 93

Personal hygiene and disease awareness 82

Gray, J. T., & Paula, J. F. (2002). Salmonella Foodborne Diseases. San Francisco: Academic


Güler, Ç. (2004) TSK Koruyucu Hekimlik Bülteni 3 (6): 119-132.

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Institute of Food Technologists: Scientific Status Summary. (2004). Bacteria Associated with

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International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene. Household water storage, handling and

point-of-use treatment (2005)

Jay, J M. (2000) Modern Food Microbiology (6th.ed.). Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland: Aspen


Meggitt, C. (2003). Food hygiene and safety (1st.ed.). UK: Bath Press Ltd


Behaviors 25(1):71-80, January-February 2000.

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Journal of Infectious Diseases: A review, 34(3), 111-122.

Page, K. E. (2004). Cholera: Mechanism of Infection, History and Treatment. South Carolina

Journal of Molecular Medicine (SCJMM), 5, 26-29.

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review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 21(1), 27-48.

American Psychologist 54(10):817-

20, October 1999.

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Personal hygiene and disease awareness 83

Philippe Braunstein "Solitude: eleventh to thirteenth century", in Georges Duby, ed. A
History of Private Life: II. Revelations of the Medieval World 1988:525

Proctor, C. BAT Industries - Smoking gun? The Observer, 1/3/98..( Rebecca L. Calderon

2002) US Environmental Protection Agency, USA

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Experimental Immunology, 160: 70 79.

Scott E. Microbial Risk Reduction: The Benefits of Effective Cleaning. 2010 In preparation.

Cole E. Allergen control through routine cleaning of pollutant reservoirs in the home

environment. Proceedings of Healthy Building 2000; 4:435-6.

Strachan DP. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the "hygiene hypothesis".

Thorax 55 Suppl 1:S2-10.: S2-10, 2000.

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England: Academic press

The United Nations World Water Development Report 'Water for people Water for life' p.102

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in retail premises. Dairy, Food Environ Sanitation, 170-179.

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