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TitleA Study of Personal and Environmental Factors Influencing Bullying
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.4 MB
Total Pages200
Table of Contents
                            München 2004
München, September 2006
Introduction
1 Theoretical Backgrounds
	1.1 The situation of bullying in the world and the researches
		1.1.1 Western Countries
			Sweden
			Norway
			Finland
			Germany
			England and Wales
			Ireland
			Italy
			USA
			Australia
		1.1.2 Asian Countries
			Japan
			Korea
	1.2 Aggression
		1.2.1 Definition
			Freudian Perspectives
			Behavioristic Perspectives
			Attributional Perspectives (social cognitive)
			Social Interactional Perspectives
			Social Learning Perspectives
		1.2.2 Types of aggression
			Affective Aggression and Instrumental Aggression – proactive, reactive
			Direct Aggression and Indirect Aggression
	1.3 Bullying
		1.3.1 Reasons of Bullying
		1.3.2 Characteristics of Aggressors
		1.3.3 Characteristics of Victims
			Submissive Victims
			Aggressive Victims
		1.3.4 Effect of being bullied
			Effects of Bullying
		1.3.5 Gender difference in Bullying Behavior
			Frequencies of Aggressive Behavior according to Gender
			Forms of Aggression according to Gender
	1.4  Effects of Attributions, Self, Social Relationships, Self-Perception and Social Support
		1.4.1 Attributions
		1.4.2 Attributions of aggression
		1.4.3 Self
			Social Relation in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence
			Self-Concept in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence
		1.4.4 Social Relationship and Effects on Self
			Parents’ Support and the Self in Parents-Child Relationships
			Peers and Friends’ Support and the Self in Relationship with Peers and Friends
			Special Adults’ Support and the Self in relationship with Special Adults
		1.4.5 Self-Perception and Bullying
		1.4.6 Social Support and Bullying
	1.5 Effects of Environmental Factors
		1.5.1 School Environment
			Physical Environment
			Peer Acceptance and Peer Status
		1.5.2 Family Environment
			Parents’ Attitudes toward Aggression
			Interaction with Child and among Family members
	1.6 Effects of Attitudes toward Aggression and Cultural Beliefs
		1.6.1 Attitude toward Aggression
		1.6.2 Cultural Beliefs
			Individualism
			Collectivism
			Cultural beliefs and Bullying
2 Hypothesis
	2.1 Experience in Bullying
		2.1.1  Number of Victims and Bullies
		2.1.2 Bullied Experience
		2.1.3 Bullying Experience
		2.1.4 Reasons for Bullying and Reactions to Bullying
			Victims’ Perspective
			Bully’s Perspective
			Bystanders’ Perspectives
	2.2 Factors Influencing Bully and Victim Tendencies
		2.2.1 Attributions
		2.2.2 Self-Perception
		2.2.3 Attitude toward Aggression
		2.2.4 Cultural Beliefs
		2.2.5 Perceived Social Support
		2.2.6 Family (Caregiver) Factor
	2.3 Conclusive Factors to Explain Changes in Bully and Victim Groups
3 Method
	3.1 Participants
		3.1.1 Students
		3.1.2 Caregivers
	3.2 Procedure
	3.3 Measuring instruments
		3.3.1 Student Questionnaire
			Bullied and Bullying Experience
			Reasons of Bullying
			Reactions to Bullying
			Bully and victim Tendencies
			Popularity
			Attributions
			Harter’s self-perception profile
			Attitudes toward Aggression
			Cultural Beliefs
			Harter’s Social-Support Profile
		3.3.2 Caregivers’ Questionnaire
			Attitude toward Aggression
			Caregivers’ Raring Style
			Cultural Beliefs
	3.4 Analysis
4 Results
	4.1 Number of Bullies and Victims
		4.1.1 Number of Victims
		4.1.2 The Number of Bullies
	4.2 Bullied Experiences and Perpetrated Bullying
		4.2.1 Bullied Experiences
			First Bullied Experience
			Bullied Experience in this Semester
			Experienced Bullied Methods and Frequencies
				
			Experience of Reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied by Others to Adults
				Experience of Reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied to Teachers
				Experience of the reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied by others to Parents
		4.2.2 Bullying experience
			First bullying Experience
			Bullying Experience in this Semester
			Perpetrated Bullying Methods and Frequencies
	4.3 Reason of Bullying and Reactions to Bullying
		4.3.1 Victim Perspective
		4.3.2 Bully Perspective
		4.3.3 Bystander Perspective
	4.4 Bully Tendency and Victim Tendency
	4.5 Factors influencing Bully and Victim tendencies
		4.5.1 Attributions and Self-Perception
			Attributional style
				Difference in the Attributional Styles among Normal, Bully, Victim, and Bully-Victim Groups
				The Predictability of the Attributional style Model on the Bully-Victim Tendency in the Application Time and in the Second Time
			Self-Perception
			Predictability of Students’ Self-perception on Bully-victim Tendencies
		4.5.2 Attitudes toward Aggression and Cultural Beliefs
			Attitude toward aggression
				Predictability of the Attitude toward Aggression
			Cultural Beliefs
				Predictability of Cultural Beliefs on Bully Tendency
		4.5.3 Perceived Social Support and Bully and Victim Tendencies
			Differences in Social Support among Normal, Bully, Victim, and Bully-Victim Groups
			Predictability Of Social Support for Bully - Victim Tendencies
		4.5.4 Family Factors: Attitudes toward aggression, raring style and cultural beliefs
			Predictability of Parental Factors to students’ Bully and Victim Tendency
			Differences in parental factors
		4.5.5 Most effective factor among the variables
	4.6 Discriminant analysis
		4.6.1 Changes in the Normal Group
		4.6.2 Changes in the Bulling Group
		4.6.3 Changes in the Victims Group
		4.6.4 Changes in the Bully-Victim Group
5 Summary and Discussion of the Results
	5.1 Experience in Bullying
		5.1.1 Number of Bullies and Victims
		5.1.2 Being Bullied Experience
		5.1.3 Bullying Experience
		5.1.4 Reason of Bullying and the Reaction
			Victim’s Perspective
			Bully’s Perspective
			Bystander’s Perspective
	5.2 Factors influencing bully and victim tendencies
		5.2.1 Attributional style
		5.2.2 Self-concept
		5.2.3 Attitude toward aggression
		5.2.4 Cultural Beliefs
		5.2.5 Perceived Social Support
		5.2.6 Family (Caregiver) Factor
			Parental raring style
			Parental Attitude toward Aggression
			Parental cultural beliefs
	5.3 Suggestions
6 References
7 Appendix
	Part I
	Part II
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

A Study of Personal and
Environmental Factors

Influencing Bullying


Su-Jeong Kim
















München 2004

Page 2

1

Page 100

At the second measuring point, much fewer students reported the

bullied experience in the semester than at the first measuring point. More

students had not been bullied in the semester at all. Especially, the rate of

students, who had been cursed about their appearance once or twice in

the semester, decreased dramatically from 93.8% to 10.7%). However,

Most students remained nonbullied at the point. However, girls and boys

didn’t show differences in the second semester. More boys than girls

reported that they had been cursed (boys: 27.5%, girls: 18.2%, 2 (1) =

4.79, p<.05), kicked and threatened (boys: 11.9%, girls: 6/1%, 2 (1) = 3.4,

p<.05). However, there was no significant difference of victim experience

in other way between boys and girls.





Experience of Reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied by Others to Adults



Experience of Reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied to Teachers

Most of students have not experienced the Incidence of Being Bullied by

others, but although they experienced it, very small number (2.8%) of

students has reported it to the teacher. The result of the students’ answer

is presented in the Figure 5. There is no gender difference to report the

Incidence of Being Bullied ( 2 (2)=1.50 p<.05).

Page 101

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

P
er

ce
nt

ag
e

Boys 89.40% 7.90% 2.70%

Girls 86% 11.10% 2.90%

no experience of
being bullied

no experience to
report it

have reported it



Figure 5. Experience of Reporting Incidence of Being Bullied to Teachers: Percentage
according to Gender



More rejected students (19.5%) were been bullied than normal

(7.2%) and 12.5% of popular students ( 2 (4) = 9.77, p<.01). However,

most of them did not report about the Incidence of Being Bullied to their

teacher. The result of comparing popularity groups is presented Table 18.



Table 18. Experience of Reporting Incidence of Being Bullied to Teachers: Frequencies
and Percentages, Result of Chi2-Test according to Popularity

Experience of the reporting the Incidence of Being Bullied to teachers

Popularity

No experience of
being bullied


N (%)

No experience to
report it


N (%)

Have reported it



N (%)
Popular 84 (87.5) 9 (9.4) 3 (3.1)
Normal 154 (92.8) 10 (6.0) 2 (1.2)
Rejected 99 (80.5) 19 (15.4) 5 (4.1)

Total 337 (87.5) 38 (9.9) 10 (2.6)





100

Page 199

Lebenslauf




Angaben zur Person Familiename : Kim

Vorname : Su-Jeong

Geboren am : 10. 09. 1972

in Mokpo, Republik Korea

Staatsangehoerigkeit : Koreanisch

Familienstand : ledig



Schulbildung 1979 – 1985 Kwangjupaedagogikhochschulezugehörige

Grundschule in Mokpo

1985 – 1988 Jungmyong Mädchen-middleschool in Mokpo

1988 – 1991 Mokpo Mädchen-highschool in Mokpo



Studium 1991 - 1995 Studim der Paedagogik an der Mokpo National

University (Abschluß: Bachelor of Arts)

1995 - 1997 Fortstudium der Paedagogik an der Mokpo

National University (Abschluß: master of

Arts)

1998 - 2000 Fortstudium der Paedagogik an der LMU

(Abschluß: master of Arts)

2000 - 2004 Promotion der Psychologie an der LMU



198

Page 200

Berufstaetigkeit 1997–1998 Assistantin an der Mokpo National Universität

2004-2006 Lecturer an der Mokpo National Universitaet

Mokpo, den 06, Sep. 2006

199

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