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TitleA Salmon Ecological Systems Model for the Nushagak & Kvichak Watersheds
LanguageEnglish
File Size6.4 MB
Total Pages105
Table of Contents
                            Table of Tables
Table of Figures
Executive Summary
Introduction
Objective 1:  Mapping salmon habitat
	Freshwater Habitat and Salmon
		Sockeye salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chinook salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Coho salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chum salmon
			Spawning
		Pink salmon
			Spawning
	Mapping and modelling freshwater habitat in the Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds
		Fine-scale analysis
			Rearing habitat analysis
			Spawning Habitat Analysis
		Coarse-scale analysis
			Stream network generation
			Stream network attributes
Objective 2:  Mapping patterns of salmon relative abundance
	Best available salmon distribution and abundance information
		Sockeye salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chinook
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Coho salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chum salmon
			Spawning
		Pink salmon
			Spawning
	Estimating Habitat Suitability by Species and Life Stage
		Sockeye salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chinook salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Coho salmon
			Spawning
			Rearing
		Chum salmon
			Spawning
		Pink salmon
			Spawning
Conclusions
	Mapping salmon habitat
		Fine-scale analysis
		Coarse scale analysis
	Mapping patterns of salmon relative abundance
	Final conclusions
References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

A Preliminary Classification and Mapping of

Salmon Ecological Systems

In the Nushagak and Kvichak Watersheds, Alaska


By

Christine Woll

David Albert

and Diane Whited

Page 2

A preliminary classification and mapping of salmon ecological systems in the Nushagak and Kvichak Watersheds, Alaska

2


Contents
Table of Tables ................................................................................................................................................... 3
Table of Figures ................................................................................................................................................. 5
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
Objective 1: Mapping salmon habitat .......................................................................................................... 14

Freshwater Habitat and Salmon ................................................................................................................ 14
Sockeye salmon ........................................................................................................................................ 14
Chinook salmon ....................................................................................................................................... 16
Coho salmon ............................................................................................................................................ 18
Chum salmon ........................................................................................................................................... 19
Pink salmon .............................................................................................................................................. 20

Mapping and modelling freshwater habitat in the Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds .................... 20
Fine-scale analysis .................................................................................................................................... 20
Coarse-scale analysis ............................................................................................................................... 29

Objective 2: Mapping patterns of salmon relative abundance ................................................................. 40
Best available salmon distribution and abundance information ........................................................... 40

Sockeye salmon ........................................................................................................................................ 40
Chinook .................................................................................................................................................... 55
Coho salmon ............................................................................................................................................ 64
Chum salmon ........................................................................................................................................... 70
Pink salmon .............................................................................................................................................. 76

Estimating Habitat Suitability by Species and Life Stage ....................................................................... 80
Sockeye salmon ........................................................................................................................................ 81
Chinook salmon ....................................................................................................................................... 83
Coho salmon ............................................................................................................................................ 86
Chum salmon ........................................................................................................................................... 88
Pink salmon .............................................................................................................................................. 89

Conclusions ....................................................................................................................................................... 91
Mapping salmon habitat.............................................................................................................................. 91

Fine-scale analysis .................................................................................................................................... 91
Coarse scale analysis ................................................................................................................................ 94

Mapping patterns of salmon relative abundance .................................................................................... 95
Final conclusions.......................................................................................................................................... 96

References ......................................................................................................................................................... 98

Page 52

A preliminary classification and mapping of salmon ecological systems in the Nushagak and Kvichak Watersheds, Alaska

52



Figure 25. Average annual sport fish harvest of sockeye salmon by drainage, as estimated from the
Alaska Sportfish Survey for the years 2004-2012 (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2014).

Rearing

Sockeye salmon are known to rear in most major lakes in the watersheds, with the exception

of the Chikimunik Lake system (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2013b; Figure 26). They

have also been found rearing in small numbers in river systems including the mainstem of the upper

Nushagak River, the Mulchatna River, and the Koktuli River, as well as several smaller tributaries of

the Nushagak, and Upper Talarik Creek in the Kvichak watershed.

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A preliminary classification and mapping of salmon ecological systems in the Nushagak and Kvichak Watersheds, Alaska

53



Figure 26. Known sockeye salmon rearing distribution, based on the State of Alaska’s Anadromous
Waters Catalog (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2013b).

Little is known about juvenile sockeye salmon abundance in these systems. However, smolt

abundance estimation was completed on the Kvichak river using hydroacoustic equipment from

1971 to 2001 (Crawford 2001; Table 6). Total estimated smolt production ranged from 26,546,646

to 414,855,005, with an average of 165,560,424 smolt. In addition, smolt production was estimated

using hydroacoustic equipment on the Nuyakuk River between 1983 and 1989 (Woolington et al.

1991; Table 7). Total smolt production ranged from 7,062,963 to 28,965,069, with an average of

14,466,395 smolt.

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A preliminary classification and mapping of salmon ecological systems in the Nushagak and Kvichak Watersheds, Alaska

104


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29:123-136.

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remote streams of Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139:288-302.

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classification using decision-based fusion of multispectral aerial images. Applied Remote
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Wood, C. C., B. E. Riddell, and D. T. Rutherford. 1987. Alternative juvenile life histories of sockeye
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and Wildlife Service, Office of Subsistence Management, Anchorage, Alaska.

Woolington, J. D., B. A. Cross, and B. L. Stratton. 1991. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon smolt studies
for 1989. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau, Alaska.

Wright, A., W. Marcus, and R. Aspinall. 2000. Evaluation of multispectral, fine scale digital imagery
as a tool for mapping stream morphology. Geomorphology 33:107-120.

Young, D., and C. Woody. 2009. Lake Clark sockeye escapement and population monitoring, 2004-
2007. Final Report for Study FIS 05-402. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of
Subsistence Management, Anchorage.

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Young, D. B. 2005. Distribution and characteristics of sockeye salmon spawning habitats in the Lake
Clark Watershed, Alaska. Water Resources Division, National Park Service, Department of
the Interior, Anchorage, Alaska.

Young, D. B., and C. A. Woody. 2007. Spawning distribution of sockeye salmon in a glacially
influenced watershed: the importance of glacial habitats. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 136:452-459.

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