Download A grammar of the Kannaḍa language in English : comprising the three dialects of the language (ancient, mediæval and modern) PDF

TitleA grammar of the Kannaḍa language in English : comprising the three dialects of the language (ancient, mediæval and modern)
File Size32.4 MB
Total Pages500
Document Text Contents
Page 250


is 'who', 'what person', < which person', and that of e353)<3J, etc. 'what',

'which'. About e^o*, etc., the plural of wrfo, etc., see 270.

(, 269), > , &c& mean 'what', 'what kind or manner of; 'why',
'how', when they might be taken also as exclamatory words (cf. 262).

>o ?j?3 oJoo, what doubt (is there)? ^dc5?3 o =5e)dr3o, what (is) the

reason so that (thou) delayest (i. e. of thy delay), esd^o, what (is) that?

&3o sjjs&d dJS^sJo 5 o, what (is) the fault he has done? gtitt >o

SeJdrao, (your) religious austerity (for) what reason (i. e. why are you

ascetics)? e5sj?S^o, what manner of man (is) he? essjs^o, what manner
of woman (is) she? a^Otd^eJ^ssJorl^^o, what (do) the discourses of

those attendants (mean)? oi^dod^ 53 ^rsr^^i 6^0 ^Aris?*, how (could)
all (be) liberal persons like Karna? ^35e>dsiiO&>Je> airfare >S&* S5c3^



ojroad>FdQ sj^slseia.c&fas*, 0, how that mass of bright fog shines on
Icr ^

the western mountain! >o ^o&oArfordp ^-iOftagtlsv* abort's

0, how

the birds crowd on the highest branch ! ao^>^) slraJeo, why many words?

'acteS ssqJrsS^rfo, what (is) the meaning of this? w ?A^D^ 3o?d6??i>, what

the name of that town? ^j ^^o dJS^o^e, what doest thou make?

$3ft ii^J zS^o, what doest thou want? ysjfii >ck ^^03^ ?S, what does
he ask? 5^^rl ^ort^ri sisJo^sS^o, what (is) his monthly pay? yd y^


art >&> Po^k^J, what did he find there? wrf^o ^(dri >Fl> eru^rf
what answer does he give thee? The genitive of So, &^o (^^S
is frequently used in the sense of 'of what', 'of what kind', 'of what

substance, caste, etc.', 'what kind', 'what', e. g. &3&3 sira
what kind of word on earth! a^GS^^fS^ of what caste (is) he?

^$ 6 >sd $ofc!or{f3J3, 0, what kind of paramour thou art!
riorso, what quality of devotion (is) that? y^Sf) 3 rfo.rforttfc

o^^o, what greatness (is) the excessive killing of beasts? >^

what kind of country? >3e3 rfjs^o, what kinti of word?

G5cSo, of what (is) this pitcher (made)? <s,c3o o3re^&3 Soe)^j, what kind of

snake (is) this? 'adrfo oS3e)^S355^J, of what caste (or profession is) he?

The dative 3=r 3$ 33 >3 ora oi3e>^^ o33)^ means 'for

what', 'wherefore', 'why', e. g. ^^p sl>o>?l>, why passion?
I do not know why. ^= 3oJ3oJo^o* orf,o, why do you beat me?

O* O \.
wherefore these various (high) ranks?

for what (is) the staying in this man's fort? -d?

, why this word (or speech)? 'srfo oiJe)^^ z3^o, why (or

what) is this required? o&s>3 ^ D, why did you come?

Page 251


272. In 102, 8, b, remark possessive pronouns have been mentioned.

There are no distinct possessive pronouns in Kannada, but their place is

supplied 1, by the genitive case of the personal pronouns, of the reflexive

pronoun and of the demonstrative pronouns, and 2, by the addition of the

demonstrative pronouns to the genitive case of the mentioned ones.

The first class corresponds to the English possessive pronominal

adjectives my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their; the second one

represents the English possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, its,

ours, yours, theirs.

1, The possessive pronominal adjectives are formed by the genitives.

^N, *^, 33, 33^ oiSU, oirf^, 3&>, 33^,
and a following noun, e.g.

the house of me, i. e. my house;

the horse of us, /'. e.

our horse;

tf, $3^, ftsjo, $>rf^,
and a following noun, e.g. 3 3j?3, ^rfo?2,

thy house; ^o tforiod, d^tfoci>5, your horse;

33, 33^ 3s3o, ^si^ (reflexive)
and a following noun, e. g. 3

his house; 3s& ^ocioS, 3rfo ^orfod, their horse;

(demonstrative masculine) and a following noun, e.g.

his house;

^odod, their horse;

a^s^, -d5=aoio,

(demonstrative feminine) and a following noun, e.g.

ht-r house; a^C ^orf^d, etc., their horse;

JC3e3, ^c3S3, y\)C3S3, sje3, ^^3, ensrf^, S5^rt^, ^rftf (demon-
strative neuter) and a following noun, e.g. S5d3 rfo^, etc., its house;

55S3&3 ^ocSod, etc., their horse.


Occasionally a possessive pronoun of the second class (i.e. one of No. 2) is

used for the first class, e.g. in the following instance of tin- unou'iit dialect:

dcScz^do 3rf^ (his) #03 & fc?d^ e^ -3-?rfortoo, tho forester thus scrapinl liis bow
(cf. No. '2).

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