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TitleA feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial using the Personal Aspirations and Concerns
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.8 MB
Total Pages359
Document Text Contents
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A feasibility study for a randomised

controlled trial using the Personal

Aspirations and Concerns Inventory

for Offenders (PACIO) to improve

short- ,

and participation in, custodial

education and to reduce reconviction



A thesis submitted to Cardiff Metropolitan University in partial fulfilment

of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Department of Applied Psychology - School

of Health Sciences. Supervisors: Dr Dan Heggs, Dr Joselyn Sellen, Dr Paul

Hewlett. Advisor: Prof Mary McMurran.

By Iva Nekovarova BSc (Hons)

May 2016

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Cardiff Metropolitan University

(Cardiff Met)

Family name: Nekovarova

Forename: Iva

Candidate for the degree of: PhD

Full title of Thesis: A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial using the

Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACIO) to improve

short- , and participation in, custodial

education and to reduce reconviction.

Summary

treatment motivation has been linked to improved treatment

engagement (Sellen et al, 2009; Campbell et al., 2010) and in turn treatment
completion is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes (McMurran &

Theodosi, 2007). Custodial education has been suggested to reduce reoffending

(e.g., Zgoba et al., 2008) and so it may be useful to develop ways of motivating
offenders to participate in custodial workshops and education classes.

Firstly, the exploratory study investigated post-release employment issues in

short-term offenders (STOs) sentenced to custody of less than 12 months.

Secondly, the main study described a feasibility study examining motivation

to participate in education. The Personal Aspiration and Concerns Inventory for

Offenders (PACIO) is a goal-based motivational interview aimed at enhancing

treatment motivation and assessing its adaptive and maladaptive dimensions

(Campbell et al., 2010). Firstly, the PACIO was used as a preparatory motivational
intervention to investigate its effect on education participation compared with STOs

who received the PACIO plus a motivational interview (PACIO plus) and a non-

intervention. Secondly, the effect of education participation on reconviction rates

was investigated. Thirdly, the influence of adaptive motivation (AM) and learned

helplessness/ powerlessness (LH/P) profiles were investigated in terms of education

participation.

The PACIO and PACIO plus did not increase

education participation. However, education participation reduced reconviction.

AM and LH/P did not predict education participation. Since these results did not

confirm the hypothesised outcomes, it is not feasible to use the PACIO or the

ivation for and participation in

custodial education. Future research should focus on developing an effective

preparatory motivational intervention for STOs to participate in education.

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However, the PMI used PACIO enriched by techniques used in Motivational

Interviewing (MI). MI is a technique that uses emphatic listening to understand the

(Miller & Rollnick, 2002, 2012).

on to change should be elicited from within rather than being

imposed on them. The basic rules to apply during an interview are 1. Expressing

empathy; 2. Rolling with resistance; 3. Support self-efficacy; and 4. Developing

discrepancy. An example interview in the PMI condition can be found in Appendix

13b.

between current and future situations. STOs in PMI group were encouraged to think

about ways to achieve their goals. Additionally, STOs in PMI received detailed

information on how to engage in education and what courses there are available. The

goal were encouraged together with developing discrepancy. However, the lives of

many offenders are complicated and the PACIO interviews were time-limited. Thus, it

was often beyond the scope of the interview

However, the interview offered the STOs time to think what to do to achieve their

goals and how to resolve obstacles in the process of achieving their goals.



4.7.7 Extracting reconviction data from the Police National Computer (PNC)

In this research, the s were noted from prison

computer databases. This was since some STOs were charged and sentenced for more

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databases was used for the purpose of this study.

length at the time they were interviewed was found not to be reported on the PNC

database. This had an effect on the number of total days of punishment and the total

of offences, total days in punishment and also total days spent in custody.

However, it was unknown to the researcher whether the offender was

sentenced for more than one offence. Moreover, it was unknown whether the sentence

consisted of one single punishment such as a sentence to 90 days in custody or

whether the punishment was multiple and thus the offender served multiple



Furthermore, eight offenders served more than a half of their sentences. This

)

which is one of the requirements to have if considering eligibility for a half point

release. Serving the whole term of the sentences may also indicate that those

offenders were charged with another crime and were waiting for their sentences whilst

in custody.

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Appendix 13a

Interviewer:

training and also your financial situation. Have you got any concerns or

aspirations in this area?

Offender:



Interviewer: OK. So what would you like to have happen?

Offender: I need to get a job.

Interviewer: OK. So how important it is for you to get a job? Here we

have a scale ranging from 0-10 where 0 is not important at all and 10 is very

important. Could you give the importance a score?



Appendix 13b

Interviewer: ent and

training and also your financial situation. Have you got any concerns or

aspirations in this area?

Offender:

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Interviewer: It seems that you are worried what would happen after



Offender:



Interviewer:

after you are out is important to you?

Offender: Yeah. What can I do here (in prison)?

Interviewer: (provides information on courses and qualifications)

Offender:



Interviewer: It looks like getting a job would make you happy and is

important to you.

Offender:

Interviewer: How easy, do you think it will be for you to get a job after

release?

Offender:



Interviewer:

achieve your goa

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