Download A Decision-Making Framework for Cleanup of Sites Impacted with Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids PDF

TitleA Decision-Making Framework for Cleanup of Sites Impacted with Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.3 MB
Total Pages86
Table of Contents
                            Notice
	Definitions
ACRONYMS
Executive Summary
	Organize Resources
		Develop the Long-Term Vision and Establish LNAPL Goals
			Collect and Analyze Supplemental Data
				Review and Revise Conceptual Model
				Identify, Evaluate, and Select LNAPL Management Options
				Establish Endpoints and Develop Contingency Plan
				Implement and Monitor Performance
				Evaluate Progress
1.0   Introduction and Objectives
2.0 Organize Resources
	2.1 Assess Current State of Knowledge
	2.2  Develop the Conceptual Model
	2.3 Organize the Stakeholder Process
	2.4 Identify Stakeholders
	2.5 Design, Agree to, and Implement a Consensus-based Proces
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3.0 Develop the Long-Term Vision and Goals
	3.1 Discuss Stakeholder Interests
		Identify future land use
	3.2 Develop a Common Understanding of the Problem
	3.3 Prepare the Long-Term Vision Statement
		HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE OF A JOINT WORK STATEMENT FOR AN IMPACT
			Divergent stakeholder positions
				Underlying interests that support these positions
				The Joint Work Statement
	3.4 Establish LNAPL Management Goals
	3.5 Document and Communicate the Consensus Process, Long-Ter
4.0 Collect and Analyze Supplemental Data
	4.1 Objectives and Targets for the Supplemental Investigatio
	4.2 LNAPL Distribution
	4.3 LNAPL Mobility and Plume Stability
	4.4 LNAPL Recoverability
	4.5 Field Data Collection
	4.6 Laboratory Analyses
	4.7 Data Interpretation
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5.0 Review and Refine Conceptual Model, Long-Term Vision, an
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6.0 Identify, Evaluate, and Select Management Options
	6.1 Identify and Evaluate LNAPL Management Options
	6.2 Treatment, Removal, and Containment Technologies
	6.3 Select and Test Technology
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7.0 Define Endpoints and Develop Contingency Plan
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8.0 Implement and Monitor Performance
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9.0 Evaluate Progress
Appendix A: Current Conditions Checklist
	Topic
		Regulatory Setting
			Description, Comments
				Site Conditions
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Appendix B: Potentially Affected Interests Matrix
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Appendix C: Selection of LNAPL Management Options
	Decision Criteria
		LNAPL Management Options Checklist
			Questions
Appendix D: Selected LNAPL Characterization and Remediation
	General Information Sources
		Characterization, Monitoring, Fate and Transport Publication
			Air Sparging, Soil Vapor Extraction, Bioventing Publications
				Bioslurping Publications
				Bioremediation/Natural Attenuation Publications
				Groundwater Circulation Wells Publications
				Dual-Phase/Multi-Phase Extraction Publications
				Risk Assessment Publications
				Surfactants/Cosolvents Publications
				Thermal Technologies Publications
				General and Crosscutting Subject Publications
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Appendix E: References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

A Decision-Making Framework
for Cleanup of Sites Impacted
with Light Non-Aqueous Phase
Liquids (LNAPL)

Page 2

Office of Solid Waste EPA 542-R-04-011
and Emergency Response March 2005
(5102G) www.clu-in.org
www.rtdf.org












A Decision-Making Framework for Cleanup of
Sites Impacted with Light Non-Aqueous Phase

Liquids (LNAPL)

Page 43

This page is intentionally blank.























30

Page 44

6.0 Identify, Evaluate, and Select Management Options


The LNAPL management option, a critical component of the LNAPL
Management Plan, defines the alternatives for addressing LNAPL at a
particular site. Selection of the LNAPL management option requires an
understanding of LNAPL distribution, mobility, composition, and
recoverability. LNAPL management options include treatment, removal, and
containment technologies and institutional controls.








When an LNAPL management goal has been established by the stakeholder group and
supplemental data have been collected, LNAPL management options should be identified
and evaluated. It is important to the supplemental data collection process that potential
options available for LNAPL management be identified before the data-collection
process is finalized. The LNAPL management option may include one or a combination
of active recovery or treatment and passive treatment technologies, containment
technologies, and/or institutional controls. The LNAPL management option should also
consider current and potential future exposure scenarios and associated risks in the
selection of appropriate elements.

6.1 Identify and Evaluate LNAPL Management Options

The first step in developing the LNAPL management strategy is the identification and
selection of specific options that support the long-term vision. The range of possible
options includes active technologies, passive technologies, institutional controls,
engineering controls (i.e., containment) and combinations of these options. Evaluation of
active and passive technologies and engineering controls can be accomplished in several
phases, beginning with screening, followed by a more detailed evaluation based upon
specific criteria, and then, if necessary, laboratory or bench-scale tests, or field pilot tests.
The screening process is diverging, where as many options as possible are reviewed,
whereas the evaluation process is converging where the entire population of options is
examined in detail so that the most promising options can be identified using a set of
criteria developed for this specific site. Appendix C includes information on decision
criteria that can be utilized to select management options and a checklist of questions that
should be asked during the management-option step. The process may also include
iterative phases of supplemental data collection and technology evaluation.

The selection of a management option should consider the application of multiple
technologies and controls, either as a system or as a sequentially applied treatment train,
as well as the application of a single technology or control. Multiple technologies and
controls are often necessary to address different exposure pathways (e.g., hydraulic
pumping of LNAPL to reduce LNAPL mobility along with soil vapor extraction to
control volatile emissions near buildings). This strategic thinking should be considered
during the screening and selection of technologies and controls.

31

Page 85

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ttp://DC
http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/rules
ttp://h
http://www.epa.gov/oust/pubs/tums.htm

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