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TitleA Conceptual History of Psychology - J. Greenwood (McGraw-Hill, 2009) WW
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LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Cover Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
Preface
Bried Contents
Contents
CHAPTER 1: History, Science, and Psychology
	Why Study the History of Psychology?
		Internal and External History
		Zeitgeist and Great Man History
		Presentist and Contexualist History
		Conceptual History of Psychology
	Science and Psychology
		Objectivity
		Causal Explanation
		Empirical Evaluation
		Atomism
		Universality of Causal Explanation
		Ontological Invariance
		Explanatory Reduction
		Determinism
		Experimentation
		Empiricism
		Scientific Method
	Philosophy and Physiology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 2: Ancient Greek Scienceand Psychology
	Greek Science
	The Naturalists
		Thales
		Anaximenes
		Heraclitus
		Empedocles
		The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus
	The Formalists
		Parmenides
		Zeno of Elea
		Pythagoras
	The Physicians
		Alcmaeon
		Hippocrates
	The Philosophers
		Socrates
		Plato
	Aristotle: The Science of the Psyche
		Theoretical Science
		Causality and Teleology
		Aristotle’s Psychology
		Materialism and Psychological Explanation
		Sensation, Perception, and Cognition
		Active and Passive Reason
		Psychology and Teleology
		Functionalism
		Consciousness and Vitality
	The Aristotelian Legacy
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 3: Rome and the Medieval Period
	The Roman Age
		The Hellenistic Period
		Alexandrian Science
		Rome and Science
		Neoplatonism
		The Decline of the Roman Empire
		The Fall of the Roman Empire
	Medieval Psychology
		Islam
		European Recovery: Reason and Faith
		The Christian Church and Aristotelian Philosophy
		Medieval Christianity and Science
		Empiriks
		Anticipations
	The End of the Medieval Period
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 4: The Scientific Revolution
	Renaissance and Reformation
		Reformation
	The Scientific Revolution
		The Copernican Revolution
		Galileo and the New Science
		Andreas Vesalius and the Scientific Revolution in Medicine
		Francis Bacon and the Inductive Method
		The Newtonian Synthesis
	Man the Machine
		René Descartes: Mind and Mechanism
		La Mettrie: Machine Man
		Thomas Hobbes: Empiricism, Materialism, and Individualism
	Mental Mechanism and Stimulus-Response Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 5: The Newtonian Psychologists
	The Newtonian Psychologists
		Newtonian Science
		John Locke: The Underlaborer for Newtonian Science
		George Berkeley: Idealism
		David Hume: Mental Mechanism
		David Hartley: The Neurology of Association
		Sensationalists and Ideologues in France
	Critical Responses to Newtonian Psychology
		Realism and Common Sense
		Rationalist Reaction
		Something Completely Different
		Romanticism
	Toward a Science of Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 6: Physiology and Psychology
	Positivism
	Associationist Psychology
		James Mill: Points of Consciousness
		John Stuart Mill: Mental Chemistry and Unconscious Inference
		Alexander Bain: Psychology and Physiology
	Cerebral Localization
		Franz Joseph Gall: Phrenology
		Pierre Flourens: Experimental Physiology
		François Magendie: The Bell-Magendie Law
		Pierre-Paul Broca: Aphasia
		Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig: The Excitability of the Cerebral Cortex
		The Sensory-Motor Theory of the Nervous System
	Experimental Physiology in Germany
		Johannes Müller: Experimental Physiology
		Emil du Bois-Reymond: Electrophysiology
		Hermann von Helmholtz: Physiological Psychology
		Ivan Sechenov: Inhibition
		Gustav Fechner: Psychophysics
	Physiological Psychology and Objective Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 7: Theories of Evolution
	Early Evolutionary Theories
		Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: The Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
	Herbert Spencer: Evolution as a Cosmic Principle
		Spencer’s Theory of Evolution
		Social Darwinism
		Evolutionary Psychology
		Spencer’s Impact
	Charles Darwin: Evolution by Natural Selection
		The Voyage of the Beagle
		The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
		Darwin’s Delay
		The Reception of Darwin’s Theory
		The Descent of Man
		Darwinism, Racism, and Sexism
		Neo-Darwinism
		Darwin’s Influence on Psychology
	Francis Galton: Individual Diff erences and Eugenics
		Individual Differences
		Nature and Nurture
		Eugenics
	Mental Evolution and Comparative Psychology
		Spalding on Instinct
		George John Romanes: Animal Intelligence
		Conwy Lloyd Morgan: Morgan’s Canon and Emergent Evolution
	Stimulus-Response Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 8: Psychology in Germany
	Psychology in Germany Before Wundt
		Johann Friedrich Herbart: Dynamic Psychology
	Wilhelm Wundt: Physiological Psychology
		The Leipzig Laboratory
		Physiological Psychology
		Experimental Methods
		Wundt’s Psychology
		Völkerpsychologie
		Wundt’s Legacy
		Wundt’s American Students
	German Psychology Beyond Leipzig
		Hermann Ebbinghaus: On Memory
		Georg Elias Müller: The Experimentalist
		Franz Brentano: Intentionality
		Carl Stumpf: The Berlin Institute of Experimental Psychology
		Oswald Külpe: The Würzburg School
		Gestalt Psychology
	Applied Psychology in Germany
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 9: Psychology in America:The Early Years
	Psychology and the Development of the American University
		The Success of Psychology
		Philosophy and Psychology
		Applied Psychology
	James and Münsterberg at Harvard
		William James
		Hugo Münsterberg
	Ladd and Scripture at Yale
	Hall at Johns Hopkins and Clark
		Johns Hopkins and the New Psychology
		Clark and Genetic Psychology
		The American Psychological Association
		Adolescence and Sex
		Old Age
	Applying the Wundtian Skeleton: Cattell, Witmer, Scott, and Wolfe
		James McKeen Cattell: Mental Testing
		Lightner Witmer: Clinical Psychology
		Walter Dill Scott: Industrial Psychology
		Harry Kirke Wolfe: Scientific Pedagogy
	Edward B. Titchener and Structural Psychology
		Structural Psychology
		Inspection and Introspection
		Völkerpsychologie and Applied Psychology
		The Experimentalists
		Imageless Thought
		The Eclipse of Structural Psychology
	Scientific and Applied Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 10: Functionalism, Behaviorism, and Mental Testing
	The Turn to Applied Psychology
	Functional Psychology
		Baldwin and Titchener on Reaction Time
		John Dewey: Purpose and Adaptation
		James Rowland Angell: The Province of Functional Psychology
		Social Engineering
	Behaviorism
		Background to Behaviorism
		Animal Psychology
		Edward L. Thorndike: The Law of Effect
		Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning
		John B. Watson: Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It
	Mental Testing, Immigration, and Sterilization
		The Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
		Goddard and the Feebleminded
		The First World War and the Army Testing Project
		Immigration and Sterilization
	The Status of Applied Psychology
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 11: Neobehaviorism, Radical Behaviorism, and Problems of Behaviorism
	Neobehaviorism
		Logical Positivism
		Operationism
		Edward C. Tolman: Purposive Behaviorism
		Clark L. Hull: A Newtonian Behavioral System
		Neobehaviorist Theory and Operational Definition
	Radical Behaviorism
		Operant Conditioning
		Explanatory Fictions
		Radical Behaviorism
	The Second World War and the Professionalization of Academic Psychology
		Psychological Contributions to the War Effort
		The Reorganization of the APA
		Postwar Expansion
	Problems of Behaviorism
		Chomsky’s Critique of Skinner
		The Misbehavior of Organisms
		Contiguity and Frequency
		Consciousness and Conditioning
		The Neurophysiology of Learning
	The Eve of the Cognitive Revolution
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 12: The Cognitive Revolution
	Information Theory
		Claude Shannon: Communication Theory
		Norbert Wiener: Cybernetics
		Donald Broadbent: Information Processing
		Computers and Cognition
	Cognitive Psychology
		Jerome Bruner: Higher Mental Processes
		George Miller: Cognitive Science
		Strategies, Programs, and Plans
		Ulric Neisser: Cognitive Psychology
		The Cognitive Revolution
	The Cognitive Revolution
		The Cognitive Revolution as “Paradigm Shift”
		From Intervening Variables to Cognitive Hypothetical Constructs
	Cognition and Behavior
		Structuralism and Anthropomorphism
		The Cognitive Tradition
		Criticism and Connectionism
	The Second Century
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 13: Abnormal and Clinical Psychology
	Neuroses, Alienists, and Psychiatry
	The Reform of Asylums
	Magnetism, Mesmerism, and Hypnosis
	Freud and Psychoanalysis
		Studies on Hysteria
		Psychosexual Development
		The Reception of Freud’s Theory
		The Scientifi c Status of Freud’s Theory
	Scientific Psychology and Abnormal Psychology
	ECT, Lobotomy, and Psychopharmacology
		Psychoactive Drugs and Institutional Care
		The Myth of Mental Illness
	Postwar Clinical Psychology
		Clinical Training
	Humanistic Psychology
	Into the 21st Century
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
CHAPTER 14: Social and Developmental Psychology
	Social Psychology
		Early German and American Social Psychology
		Individualistic Social Psychology
		Social Psychology in the Postwar Period
	Developmental Psychology
		Scientific Psychology and Developmental Psychology
		Cognitive Development
	Discussion Questions
	Glossary
	References
EPILOGUE: The Past and Future of Scientific Psychology
Credits
Name Index
Subject Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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A Conceptual History of Psychology
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336 CHAPTER 8: PSYCHOLOGY IN GERMANY

explanatory reduction of psychological confi gurations to neural confi gurations, was
undermined by the failure of neural fi eld theory. Köhler’s own neurophysiological
research at MIT did not provide any empirical support for the theory.
The Gestalt psychologists were dismissive of alternative explanations of the
various perceptual, cognitive, and social psychological processes covered by their
theories. They promoted Gestalt psychology with evangelical zeal, behaving like
“intellectual missionaries, spreading a new gospel” (Sokal, 1984, p. 1257), and
located the principles of Gestalt psychology within a general holistic philosophi-
cal worldview. These features partially account for the limited impact of Gestalt
psychology on the development of American psychology.
While the Gestalt psychologists were accorded due respect by the American
psychological community, they attracted few American disciples to continue their
general theoretical program. One reason for their lack of impact was the fact that
Wertheimer and Koffka died fairly young, and they all held positions at institu-
tions without graduate programs in psychology (Wertheimer at the New School,
Koffka at Smith College, and Köhler at Swarthmore College).
Although Gestalt psychology was opposed to the atomism of traditional
associationist psychology and behaviorism, it was as thoroughly mechanistic
as both. Some have come to associate Gestalt psychology with an emphasis on
human agency and creativity and a holistic rejection of mechanistic and reduc-
tive approaches to the explanation of human behavior. “Gestalt therapy” has also
been championed as a form of “self-discovery,” as opposed to more directive forms
of therapy (Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1951). However, there is little support
for such characterizations in the work of Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka, who all
insisted that psychological processes are wholly determined by automatic neural
processes. Although they made some theoretical contributions to psychotherapy
(Knapp, 1986), Köhler explicitly repudiated the form of “Gestalt therapy” pro-
moted by Fritz Perls (1893–1970) and his colleagues (Henle, 1978b).

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY IN GERMANY

Despite their theoretical differences (and personal animosity), Wundt and Stumpf
saw psychology as a natural development of philosophy. However, the majority
of German philosophers and later psychologists did not share this view. Wilhelm
Dilthey, Stumpf’s philosophical colleague at the University of Berlin, claimed
that natural scientifi c methods are inappropriate for the study of psychological
states and processes and engaged in critical debates with Wundt, Stumpf, and
Ebbinghaus about the legitimacy of experimental psychology.
Opposition to the appointment of psychologists to philosophy chairs in
Germany reached such a pitch that in 1913 Wilhelm Windelband (1848–1915)
was able to organize a petition by 107 philosophers in Germany, Austria, and

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Page 362

Switzerland, who protested against “the fi lling of chairs in philosophy with repre-
sentatives of experimental psychology” (quoted in Ash, 1980, p. 407). Opposition
from philosophers threatened to overwhelm psychology in Germany (Metzger,
1965), forcing Wundt to defend both experimental psychology and its integral
relation to philosophy in Psychology Struggling for Survival (1913).
After the First World War, experimental psychologists were no longer appointed
to chairs in philosophy, and traditional philosophers recaptured the chairs at the
universities of Bonn and Wroclaw. New positions were introduced for psycholo-
gists during the 1920s and 1930s, but these were almost exclusively at technical
universities and institutes (Kusch, 1995). German psychologists eventually fol-
lowed the lead of their philosophical critics and organized their own petition in
1931 for the establishment of separate chairs of psychology at leading German
universities.
Wundt had rejected what he called the “American model” of separate psychol-
ogy departments and chairs, which he feared would lead to an overemphasis on
applied over theoretical and experimental psychology. Yet this is precisely what
happened in Germany in the years after Wundt’s death. During the 1920s psy-
chology in Germany became increasingly applied, and by 1925 publications in
applied psychology outnumbered those in “pure” or general psychology by two
to one (Osier & Wozniak, 1984, cited in Kusch, 1995, p. 124).

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY IN GERMANY 337

Psychotechnics: group training facility for streetcar drivers in Berlin.

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696 SUBJECT INDEX

Wundt, Wilhelm (Contd.)
Würzburg school’s confl ict

with, 324–326
Würzburg Institute of Psychology,

321–326, 397, 398, 549–550

Yale University
Clinic for Child Development,

634
Communication and Attitude

Change Program, 625
Institute of Human Relations, 487
laboratory programs at, 313, 351

Ladd at, 369
Scripture at, 369–370

Yerkes Primate Laboratories, 511
Yerkes-Bridges Point Scale of

Intelligence, 455
York retreat, 569, 570
Young-Helmholtz theory of color

vision, 227

Zeitgeist history, 3–4
Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und

Sprachwissenschaft (journal), 308
Zeno’s paradoxes, 41

The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral
Physiology and Mesmerism and
Their Application to Human
Welfare (journal), 575

Zoonomia: Or the Laws of Organic
Life (Erasmus Darwin), 176,
180, 192, 242, 266

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