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Title1771880252
TagsIrrigation Horticulture And Gardening Land Management Earth & Life Sciences
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Table of Contents
                            FRONT COVER
CONTENTS
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF SYMBOLS
PREFACE
FOREWORD
FOREWORD
FOREWORD
FOREWORD
BOOK SERIES: RESEARCH ADVANCES IN SUSTAINABLE MICRO IRRIGATION
ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
WARNING/DISCLAIMER
PART I - PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE MICRO IRRIGATION FOR TREES AND VINES
	CHAPTER 1 - PRINCIPLES OF AUTOMATION
	CHAPTER 2 - PRINCIPLES OF SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
	CHAPTER 3 - EVALUATION OF THE UNIFORMITY COEFFICIENTS
	CHAPTER 4 - WATER MANAGEMENT IN CITRUS: INDIA
	CHAPTER 5 - RESEARCH ADVANCES IN IRRIGATION AND FERTIGATION MANAGEMENT: CITRUS
	CHAPTER 6 - MICRO IRRIGATION POTENTIAL IN FRUIT CROPS: INDIA
	CHAPTER 7 - QUALITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR MICRO IRRIGATION
	CHAPTER 8 - EVALUATION OF MICRO IRRIGATION WITH MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER
PART II - RESEARCH ADVANCES AND APPLICATIONS
	CHAPTER 9 - EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION METHODS ON FRUIT PERFORMANCE OF ACID LIME
	CHAPTER 10 - PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS RETICULATA CV. BLANCO WITH MICROJET IRRIGATION
	CHAPTER 11 - MICRO IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN NAGPUR MANDARIN
	CHAPTER 12 - PERFORMANCE OF NAGPUR MANDARIN WITH PRACTICES
	CHAPTER 13 - POTASSIUM FERTIGATION IN NAGPUR MANDARIN
	CHAPTER 14 - SENSOR BASED IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN BLUEBERRIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES
BACK COVER
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

www.appleacademicpress.com

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

Page 173

Performance of Citrus Reticulata CV. Blanco with Microjet Irrigation 133

(2/tree) Rayjet; M3–270° microjet (2/tree) Rayjet; and M4–300° microjet (2/tree)
Rayjet.

There were six replications per treatments in a randomized block design Fig.
1. The soil in the 0–15 cm depth had pH of 7.5, CaCO3 of 2.6%, sand of 31.5%,
silt of 23.7%, and clay of 45.2%. The soil type is classifi ed as fi ne, alkaline, hyper-
thermic, calcareous family of Vertic Ustochrept. Volumetric soil moisture content
at fi eld capacity (FC) and the permanent wilting point (PWP) soil moisture content
at the site were 29.86% and 20.38%, respectively. The available water content of
the soil was 9.48% (= 29.86–20.38%). The soil bulk density of the fi eld was 1.34
g/cm3. The microjet irrigation system was installed in January 2008 and irrigation
treatments were initiated in April, 2009. The fl ow of water to the irrigation treat-
ment was automatic with solenoid valves and was recorded with water meters.

FIGURE 1 (Continued)

Page 174

134 Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines

FIGURE 1 Sustainable irrigation systems in Nagpur mandarin trees.

The average daily pan evaporation varied from 3.12 mm in November to 11.64
mm in May. The average discharge from microjet 1800 Fanjet, microjet 180°
Rayet, microjet 270° Rayet and microjet 300° Rayet was 22, 18, 32 and 24 L per
hour per tree, respectively. Irrigation was accordingly regulated daily by adjusting
the duration of irrigation. The Hybrid Station Controller (E-6, Rain Bird, USA)
and Solenoid valve (Hunter, USA) were installed in fi eld. The easy Extra Simple
Programmable (ESP) hybrid station controller (four stations) automatically oper-
ated the electronic solenoid valves for the specifi ed programmed duration. It has
three independent programs having six start times and four control stations. Each
station runs for 4 h at the most. It has a setting for irrigation frequency. The water
budgeting is also possible from 10 to 200% of the time set. Aluminum access tubes
(50-mm diameter) were laid at the soil depth of 0.70 m within the tree basin and
0.90 m from the trunk considering the zone of maximum feeder root distribution.
Soil moisture status in the tree basin was monitored regularly using a Neutron
moisture probe at 15-cm, 30-cm, 45-cm, and 60-cm soil depth. The total monthly
quantity of irrigation water in each treatment was recorded automatically. The in-
crease in biometric growth parameters (tree height, and girth and canopy volume)

Page 346

306 Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines

KD = 0.18 + 0.82 KB for KB < 0.15
Ra, extraterrestrial radiation [MJ m

–2 d–1]
Kt, turbidity coeffi cient, 0 < Kt < 1.0 where Kt = 1.0 for clean air and Kt = 1.0

for extremely turbid, dusty or polluted air.
P, atmospheric pressure [kPa]
Φ, angle of the sun above the horizon [rad]
W, perceptible water in the atmosphere [mm] = 0.14 ea P + 2.1
ea, actual vapor pressure [kPa]
P, atmospheric pressure [kPa]

APPENDIX J

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART AT SEA LEVEL

Page 347

www.appleacademicpress.com

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

Sustainable
Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation

3

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE
Senior Editor-in-Chief

Sustainable M
icro Irrigation M

anagem
ent for Trees and Vines

Goyal

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management
for Trees and Vines

This valuable book focuses on sustainable micro irrigation management for trees
and vines. Specialists throughout the world share their expertise, specifically on
micro irrigation practices for citrus, blueberries, and other fruit crops. Chapters
cover the principles as well as recent advances and applications and include
such topics as:

• automation of micro irrigation systems
• service and maintenance of micro irrigation systems
• evaluation of micro irrigation systems
• scheduling of irrigation
• using municipal wastewater for micro irrigation
• micro-jet irrigation and other systems
• the effect of potassium, acid lime, and other elements
• much more

ABOUT THE SENIOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Megh R. Goyal, PhD, PE, is a retired professor of agricultural and biomedical
engineering at the College of Engineering at University of Puerto Rico. He has
worked at the Biomedical Engineering Department of Florida International
University, Miami, USA; was a Lecturer/Research Assistant at Haryana
Agricultural University, India, and Ohio State University, USA; and was Professor
and Research Agricultural Engineer at the Agricultural Experiment Station of the
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez campus. He is also Senior Acquisitions
Editor for Apple Academic Press, Inc., in the areas of agricultural science and
biomedical engineering, as well as Senior Editor-in-Chief of the book series
Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation.

_________________________________________________________
Books in the Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation
book series:

Volume 1: Sustainable Micro Irrigation: Principles and Practices
Volume 2: Sustainable Practices in Surface and Subsurface Micro Irrigation
Volume 3: Sustainable Micro Irrigation Management for Trees and Vines
Volume 4: Management, Performance, and Applications of

Micro Irrigation Systems
Volume 5: Applications of Furrow and Micro Irrigation in Arid and

Semi-Arid Regions

ISBN: 978-1-77188- 25-10

9 781771 880251

00009

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