Download 'Renewable Energy' Best Practice Guidance - The Planning Service PDF

Title'Renewable Energy' Best Practice Guidance - The Planning Service
LanguageEnglish
File Size603.6 KB
Total Pages98
Table of Contents
                            Preamble
1. Wind energy
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		Spacing of Turbines
		Other Infrastructure
		Connection to the Electricity Grid
		Operation and Maintenance
		Wind Resource
	PLANNING ISSUES
		General
		Specific Issues
		Nature Conservation
		Landscape and Visual Impact
			Visual Impact
			Ancillary development
			Visual Assessment
			Cumulative Landscape and Visual Impacts
			Ground Water Conditions/Geology
			Archaeology and the Built Heritage
			Noise
			Low Frequency Noise (Infrasound)
			Safety
			Proximity to Road and Railways
			Proximity to Power Lines
			Lightning Strike
			Electromagnetic Production and Interference
			Aviation Interests
				Risk of Collision
				Radar
			Shadow Flicker and Reflected Light
			Ice Throw
			Recreation and Tourism
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
		Grid Connection
	CONSULTEES
2. Biomass
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		Fuel Sources
		Residues from forestry harvesting
		Co-Product from timber processing
		Agricultural sources of biomass
		Biomass Fuel Pellets
		Energy crops
		Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
		Additional Products
		Emission and Residual Products
		Airborne Emissions
		Emissions to Watercourses
		Ash
		Locational Issues
			Feedstock availability
			Customers
			Grid Connection
			Appearance and site footprint
	PLANNING ISSUES
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Environmental Impact Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
3. Energy from Waste (biological processes)
	INTRODUCTION
		Anaerobic digestion
		Sewage gas
		Landfill gas
	TECHNOLOGY
		Anaerobic digestion
		Fuel sources
		Gas collection and use
		Other products
		Digestion equipment
		Gas handling equipment
		Plant containment
		Electricity and heat generation
		Sewage gas
		Landfill gas
		Gas collection and management
		Electricity Generation
		Direct-End Use
	PLANNING ISSUES
		Anaerobic digestion
			Site selection, Transport and Traffic
			Feedstocks and Product Storage
			Odour
			Emissions to Ground and Watercourses
			Emissions to Air
			Sewage gas
				Site selection, Transport and Traffic
			Landfill gas
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Anaerobic digestion
		Sewage gas
		Landfill gas
		Environmental Impact Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
4. Energy from Waste (Thermal processes)
	INTRODUCTION
		Municipal Solid Waste
		Business waste
		Other relevant wastes
		Waste arisings and collection
		Implications of the Renewables Obligation
	TECHNOLOGY
		Direct combustion
		Pyrolysis
		Gasification
		Combined Heat and Power
		Scale of development
		Disposal of ash and gas cleaning residues
	PLANNING ISSUES
		Siting issues
		Visual Effects
		Ambient air quality and odour
		Dust
		Emissions to water
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Environmental Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
5. Small Hydro
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		The Intake
		The pipeline
		The turbine house
		The tailrace
		Electricity connection
		The context
	PLANNING ISSUES
		Siting and the landscape
		Design Considerations
		Hydrological Considerations
		Ecological Considerations
		Fisheries interests
		Noise
		Construction disturbance
		Operational disturbance
		Recreation and Public Access
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Environmental Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
6. Active Solar (Photovoltaics)
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		Siting issues
		Types of system
		The context
	PLANNING ISSUES
		General
		Listed buildings and designated areas
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Environmental Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
7. Solar Thermal (Solar Water Heating)
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		Flat plate collectors
		Evacuated tube collectors
		Installation
		Siting issues
		The context
	PLANNING ISSUES
		General
		Listed Buildings and designated areas
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Environmental Assessment
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
8. Ground, Water and Air Source Heat Pumps
	Ground Source Heat Pumps
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
	PLANNING ISSUES
		Archaeology
		Contamination
	Water Source Heat Pumps
	Air Source Heat Pumps
9. Passive Solar Design
	INTRODUCTION
	TECHNOLOGY
		Tool kit
		Technical constraints
	PLANNING ISSUES
	INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
		Housing applications
			Siting and Layout
			Land form and landscaping
			Design and fenestration
			Other buildings
				Lighting
				Heating/Cooling
	OTHER AUTHORISATIONS/CONSENTS
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Best Practice Guidance to




Planning Policy Statement 18
‘Renewable Energy’








August 2009


Planning and Environmental Policy Group

Page 49

Ash
2.2.34 The main solid bi-product of the conversion of biomass into energy is

ash, usually termed ‘bottom ash’. Bottom ash is produced at a rate of
around 1 per cent of the total weight of the biomass burned. If residues
from forests are used, the inclusion of ‘tramp’ materials such as soil
may increase this ash level to 3-4 per cent. The ash from most fuels,
with the general exception of MSW, can be safely returned to the soil
as a fertiliser.



Locational Issues
2.2.35 Three main considerations must be taken into account when deciding

upon the location of a biomass-fuelled power plant.



Feedstock availability
2.2.36 Biomass is a low value, high volume commodity that increases in cost

with even short transport distances. Generally, it is preferable to locate
the proposed plant at the ‘centre of gravity’ of the proposed feedstock.
As it may be necessary to seek a variety of feedstocks for a number of
reasons including security of supply and regulatory policy, this centre of
gravity will inevitably be influenced by the location of the different
feedstocks. Main transport conduits or feedstock concentration points
will be preferred locations for the larger plant.




Customers
2.2.37 The ability to sell heat directly to an end user has a significant positive

effect on the commercial performance of a scheme and therefore it
would be very advantageous from an environmental and commercial
point of view to locate the scheme close to a potential customer e.g.
within district heating systems or commercial / industrial estates.




Grid Connection
2.2.38 Due to cost considerations, the majority of electricity generation

projects need to be located close to existing grid infrastructure with the
capacity to accept the proposed generation capacity.



Appearance and site footprint
2.2.39 The appearance and site footprint depends on the scale of the plant.

For example, in the case of a small heat plant for a school, the boiler
house could be some 4 metres by 3 metres, with a fuel bunker of
similar proportions. The bunker may be semi-underground, only a
metre or so protruding above ground, with a lockable steel lid. The
chimney will be 3 to 10 metres high, depending on plant design and
surrounding buildings. Sufficient space to safely manoeuvre a large
lorry or tractor and trailer is required.



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Page 50

2.2.40 In the case of a larger electricity generating plant, a medium sized
industrial building will be required, with a slender chimney of 25 or
more metres in height. A Dutch barn scale building may be required for
on-site storage of fuel, and additional buildings for offices and
workshops may be required. An extensive area for lorry manoeuvring
will be needed. Typically, a 1.5MW plant producing electricity using
gasification technology will require a site area of some 0.5 hectares
and a 40MW plant may require 5 hectares.




PLANNING ISSUES
2.3.1 The remit of consideration for the planning system is around the power

plant and associated impacts and not the production of the fuel source.
However, the impacts of growing and collecting the fuel are key to
ensuring the successful development of a facility. Many of the
environmental issues associated with the fuel supply (e.g. impact on
landscape, ecology, archaeology, land use etc) may be covered by an
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken by other bodies in
connection with the scheme.


2.3.2 The following issues will be considered when determining a planning

application:
• the positive benefit of the plant to the local economy. The supply of

biomass fuel can secure a long-term income for farmers, forestry
owners and contractors, and transport operators in rural areas.
Some 80 to 90% of operational expenditure on biomass fuel supply
can accrue to the local economy;

• visual intrusion – the plant is an industrial feature with a chimney.
In certain weather conditions a plume may be evident from the
chimney and/or drying equipment depending upon the design of
the equipment;

• noise from traffic and plant operations. As an industrial
development, BS 4142 will usually be the applicable standard;

• any effects on health, local ecology or conservation from the plant,
and airborne and water borne emissions (as discussed above); and

• traffic to and from the site in order to transport biomass fuel and
subsequent by-products. Traffic volumes, the associated noise,
and local air pollution impacts may increase with the introduction of
a large biomass power facility, as the scheme may require a
continuous fuel supply.




INFORMATION TO ACCOMPANY A PLANNING APPLICATION
2.4.1 The successful development of a biomass-fuelled power plant entails

detailed consideration of a wide range of factors and the developer
may need to provide information on some if not all of the following
matters:
• maps, diagrams and drawings showing the location and design of

the plant, and the general location of fuel sources;

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